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Section 1 Pages 110-114.  What comes to mind when you hear the term personality?  *  No two individuals have exactly the same personality.  Each individual.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1 Pages 110-114.  What comes to mind when you hear the term personality?  *  No two individuals have exactly the same personality.  Each individual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 1 Pages 110-114

2  What comes to mind when you hear the term personality?  *  No two individuals have exactly the same personality.  Each individual has his or her own way of interacting with other people and with his or her social environment.

3  Personality is defined as the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristic of an individual.  This refers to more than an individual’s most striking characteristic.  Our personality traits determine how we adjust to our environment and how we react in specific situations.  People’s personalities continue to develop throughout their lifetime.

4 Nature vs.  Heredity: the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children  Also known as inherited genetic characteristics  Can you give 3 examples of characteristics that you inherited from your parents? Nurture  The suggestion that the social environment – contact with other people – determines personality.  Also known as environmental and social learning  Name three things in the environment that can influence your personality.

5  Instinct  Is an unchanging, biological, inherited behavior pattern.  Instinct is often applied to animal behavior  Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov  John B. Watson applied this theory to humans  He claimed he could take a group of healthy infants and make them anything he wanted: doctors, lawyers, beggars, artists, athletes, etc.

6  The systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior.  The nature argument gained momentum with the introduction of sociobiology in the 1970s.  However few sociologists accept the socio- biologists arguments.  Varied cultural characteristics and behavioral traits like religion, cooperation, competition, slavery, territoriality, and envy are rooted in the genetic makeup of humans.  In other words, most of human social life is determined by biological factors.

7  Most social scientists assume that personality and social behavior result from a blending of heredity and social environment.  They believe environmental factors have the most influence.  Heredity, birth order, parents, and the cultural environment are the principle factors in determining personality and behavior.

8  Everyone has certain characteristics that are present at birth.  Body build, hair type, eye color, and skin pigmentation.  These include certain aptitudes.  Aptitudes: is a capacity to learn a particular skill or acquire a particular body of knowledge.  Some can be learned, others are born with these.  Examples include; natural talent for music or art.

9  If a child shows a verbal aptitude, parents often respond by praising his or her ability, or spend extra time reading with the child.  These actions tend to encourage the development of the child’s innate talent.  Positive or negative parental reinforcement may also affect the development of such personality traits as shyness, sociability, and aggression.

10  Like animals, humans have certain needs like the hunger drive makes you want to eat.  The hunger drive does not tell you when eat, what to eat or how to eat.  You learn these things from the environment around you.  Therefore heredity provides the hunger drive but culture determines how you meet those needs.

11  Our personalities are also influenced by whether we have brothers or sisters.  Children with siblings have a different view of the world then children who do not.  The order in which we are born into also influences personalities.  Research shows:  Those born first are more likely to be achievement oriented and responsible.  Second and middle born children tend to be better in social relationships and to be more affectionate and friendly.  Later born in contrast, are often risk takers and social or intellectual rebels.

12  Personality development in children can be influenced by the characteristics of their parents.  The age of parents can have a bearing on a child’s personality.  Parents in their 20’s relate differently then parents who are in the their mid 30’s or 40’s.  Some parental characteristics that can influence a child’s personality are  Level of education  Religion  Economic Status  Heritage  Occupational background

13  Culture has a strong influence on personality development.  Each culture gives rise to a series of personality traits – model personalities – that are typical of members in that society.  In the U.S.  Competitiveness, assertiveness, and individualism are common traits.  What other cultures besides the country you live in influence your personality development?

14  Research on your laptops each of the following feral children  Anna  Genie  Isabella  Write 1 paragraphs describing what factors might have led to the different levels of success in efforts to teach Anna, Isabella, and Genie to function normally in sociology  Consider:  The amount of human contact each child had &  The age at which each child was found

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