Presentation on theme: "Basic FBA to BSP Module 1: Defining & Understanding Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic FBA to BSP Module 1: Defining & Understanding Behavior Using FBA to Develop Function-Based Support for Students with Mild to Moderate Problem BehaviorModule 1: Defining & Understanding Behavior
2 Participant’s Guidebook Checks for UnderstandingComments/QuestionsTasksKey PointsObjectivesReviewActivities
3 Defining & Understanding Behavior This is the first of 7 training modules focused on conducting behavioral assessment and developing function-based support for students with mild to moderate challenging behaviors.Module 1 provides an overview of the Basic FBA to BSP training series and lays the foundation for:#1. Understanding why problem behavior continues to occur#2. Using that information to develop effective intervention strategies
4 Adapt BSP and implementation as needed based on on-going monitoring The Basic FBA to BSP Process1. Define the Problem Behavior2. Conduct assessment for behavior support planninga. Functional Behavioral Assessment• Defining behavior in observable & measureable terms• Ask staff and student about where, when, & why behavior occurs• See the behavior during specified routines• Hypothesize a final summary of where, when, & why behavior occurs3. Design an individualized behavior support plan (BSP)• Ensure technical adequacy• Ensure contextual fit4. Ensure Fidelity of Implementation5. Monitor Plan Impact on Student BehaviorAdapt BSP and implementation as needed based on on-going monitoringAdapted from Horner, Albin, Todd, Newton & Sprague, 2011
5 Basic FBA to BSP Training Series Module 1- Defining & Understanding BehaviorModule 2- FBA: Practice InterviewingModule 3- FBA: Practice ObservingModule 4- Critical Features of BSPModule 5- Building BSP from FBAModule 6- Implementation & EvaluationModule 7- Leading a BSP Team
6 Basic vs. Complex FBA/BSP Focus of this training seriesBasicComplexFor:Students with mild to moderate problem behaviors (behaviors that are NOT dangerous or occurring in many settings)Students with moderate to severe behavioral problems; may be dangerous and/or occurring in many settingsWhat:Relatively Simple and Efficient process for behavior support planning based on “practical” FBA dataTime-intensive process that involves emergency planning, family-centered planning, and collaboration with outside agenciesDeveloped by whom:Team of school-based professionals (e.g., PBS team members whose job responsibilities include FBA and behavior support planning)School-based team including professionals trained to develop and implement intensive interventions for students with severe problem behaviors (e.g., behavior specialist)66
7 Basic FBS/BSP Methods are designed to be used with students who: Exhibit problem behaviors that are NOT dangerous (e.g., talking out, non-compliance, not completing work, social withdrawal)Exhibit problem behaviors in 1 to 2 school routines (e.g., specific classroom activities, lunch, recess)Have received interventions that did not improve problem behaviorBasic FBA/BSP Methods are NOT sufficient for use with students who:Exhibit dangerous behaviors (e.g., hitting, throwing objects, property destruction)Exhibit problem behaviors during 3 or more school routines
8 Module 1 Objectives By the end of this module you should be able to: Define observable behavior (What).Identify events that predict When & Where the specific behavior occurs.Identify Why a student engages in the specific behavior.Construct hypothesis statements that summarize the What, When, Where, & Why of a student’s behavior
9 The A-B-C’s of Understanding Behavior A= Antecedent. Find out the events that occur right before the behavior. When and Where?B= Behavior. Find out What is the observable problem behavior?C= Consequence. Find out what happens after the behavior occurs? WHY?
10 Always Start by Defining the Problem Behavior 2Antecedents/TriggersWhen _____happens….1Behavior:the student does (what)__3Consequence/Function..and as a result ______10
11 Defining Observable Behaviors Definitions of behaviors need to be:Observable: The behavior is an action that can be seen.Measurable: The behavior can be counted or timed.Defined so clearly that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts!
12 Observable/Measurable Definition Non-observable/measurable Definition Talks when teacher is lecturing, calling out in a loud voice, singingDisruptive behaviorsDraws pictures during group work timeOff-task behaviorsThrowing objects, Kicking over chairsAngry, Hostile BehaviorsCalls peers namesInappropriate languageTapping/ drumming on desk, looking around the classroomAttention problemsRefusal to do work, failure to follow directionsNon-complianceYells “No” or “You can’t make me” when given directionDefiance
13 Are these observable, & measurable? Gets out of desk and hits other studentsHas separation anxiety (from parent)SpaceyReads 120 wpmSays she hears voicesEmotionally disturbedDoesn’t like classmates
14 Defining Behavior: Tip #1: Ask yourself, “What does the behavior look like?” Talking out: Any verbalization made by the student that was not initiated by the teacher and/or distracts others from the assigned tasks in the classroom.
15 Tip #2 Provide Examples and Non-examples of the problem behavior Examples of Talking Out:Answering a question directed to another student by the teacher.Talking when the teacher is giving directionsTalking to peers during independent work timeNon-examples of Talking Out:Answering a question that the teacher directed to the childYelling to another student during recessTalking with a peer during group work
16 Behavior = Talking outDefinition: Any verbalization made by the student that was not initiated by the teacher and/or distracts others from the assigned tasks in the classroom.Examples of Talking Out:Answering a question directed to another student by the teacher.Talking when the teacher is giving directionsTalking to peers during independent work timeNon-examples of Talking Out:Answering a question that the teacher directed to the child.Yelling to another student during recessTalking with a peer during group work
17 Activity 1Using your guidebook (page 4) provide an observable & measurable definition for ONE of these behaviors:Jeff is always disruptive in class.Hailey is constantly off-task during math.Chris is defiant.Brandon is angry and hostile.Alexis uses inappropriate language.
18 Is your definition so clear that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts?
19 Once you have defined the problem behavior… THEN: Where & When does the behavior occur?RoutinesTriggering Antecedents2Antecedents/TriggersWhen _____happens….1Behavior:the student does (what)__19
20 WHERE and WHEN Does the Problem Behavior Occur? WHERE = Routines where the problem behavior is most likelyExamples: During math class, gym class, lunch, recessWHEN = Specific events (or antecedents) within a routine that “trigger” the problem behaviorExamples: When given double-digit addition, given directions
21 Identifying Antecedent “Triggers” Identify the event, action, or object that occurs right before the problem behavior (When…)Signals the behavior“Sets it off” (trigger)Identify the ANTECEDENT in these examples:At the lunch table, when told to shut up by a peer, Ben hits the studentIn language arts class, when asked to read aloud in class, Tracy gets up and tells jokesDuring circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying
22 The student does __________ Activity 2 (page 5): Identify the behavior, routine, & antecedent in the following scenariosFrame them in the blanks/boxes with the following statements:Routine: “During _______________”Antecedent/Trigger:When _______Behavior:The student does __________22
23 Scenario #1During passing period in the hallway before recess, when peers tease him about his walk, A.J. calls them names and hits them.Routine: “During __________________________”Passing Period before RecessAntecedentAntecedentBehaviorWhen…When…When…The student...The student...PEERS TEASE ABOUT HIS WALKCALLS NAMES & HITS23
24 STARES & DOES NOT RESPOND TO DIRECTIONS Scenario #2In math class, Bea stares off into space and does not respond to teacher directions when she is given a difficult math problem.Routine: “During________________”Math ClassAntecedentBehaviorWhen…When…The student…GIVEN A DIFFICULT MATH PROBLEMSTARES & DOES NOT RESPOND TO DIRECTIONS24
25 Once you have defined the behavior (the What) & know Where & When the behavior occurs… Then: WHY does the behavior continue to occur (what happens right afterwards)? Step #1: What is the CONSEQUENCE? Step #2: What is the PAYOFF?2Routines/Antecedents/Setting Events:When _____happens….1Behavior:the student does (what)__3Consequence/Outcome..and as a result ______25
26 Step #1: Determine What Happens Right After the Behavior (the Consequence or Outcome). It may help to think: “and as a result ______________”Example (AntecedentBehaviorConsequence)During recess, when peers tease him, Ben hits his peers and they leave him alone.During reading, When asked to read aloud Tracy tells jokes, the other students laugh, and she is sent to the office (missing the assignment).During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying, the teacher stops circle time and comforts her.
27 Activity 3 (pages 6 &7): Identify the behavior, routine, antecedent and consequence in the scenarios Frame them in the blanks/boxes with the following statements:Routine: “During _______________”Antecedent/Trigger:When _______Behavior:The student does __________Consequence/Outcome:… and as a result__________2727
28 Throws pencil & rips paper Scenario #1Joe throws his pencil and rips his paper during math whenever he is given double-digit math problems. This results in him getting sent to the office. Routine: “During ________________”Math classAntecedent/Trigger:When..Behavior:Student does..Consequence/Outcome:and as a result…Given double-digit math problemsThrows pencil & rips paperSent to the office
29 Consequence/Outcome: Scenario #2Nancy cries during reading time when she is asked to work by herself. This results in the teacher sitting and reading with her. Routine: “During ________________”ReadingAntecedent/Trigger:When…Behavior:Student does..Consequence/Outcome:and as a result...Asked to work by herselfThe teacher sits & reads with herCries
30 Step #2: Understanding WHY the Behavior Occurs When understanding behavior, we want to learn what FUNCTION (or purpose) the behavior is serving for the student (what is the pay-off for the student?)You need to understand from the student’s perspective…What are they getting (or trying to get) from engaging in this behaviorWhat is the most important thing that the student wants to gain (or avoid) by using this behavior
32 Most Common Functions of Behavior To Avoid/ Escape:Difficult TaskBoring TaskEasy TaskPhysical demandNon-preferred activityPeerStaffReprimandsTo Obtain/ Get :Peer attentionAdult attentionDesired activityDesired object/ itemsSensory stimulation: auditory, tactile, etc.
33 Examples of Function in School Obtain/Get ReinforcersI yell and others look at meI fight and others listen to meI wander and people talk to meI hit in order to get toys from other kids.Escape/Avoid AversivesI cry when work gets hard and someone will help meI throw a book during math class and the teacher will remove me from classI stand out of the way during PE and the other game participants will avoid throwing me the ball.
34 Understanding FUNCTION: WHY? What is the Payoff? Use information about the routine, antecedent, behavior, & consequence to determine that the function of the behavior is either to:-Get or Avoid something in the environmentRoutine: During ________________Consequence/OutCome:and as a result… __________Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid ____________Antecedent/Trigger:When _________Behavior:Student does _________
35 What is the Function of/ Pay-off for Bobby’s Behavior? When asked to work with a partner in science, Bobby tears up his assignment and stomps his feet. The teacher then has Bobby sit down at his desk to complete the same assignment, while the rest of the class works together with their partners. Get?? Avoid?? What? An Activity? Peers? Teacher?
36 Bobby’s Summary Statement Routine: During ________________ScienceAntecedent/Trigger:When ..Asked to work with a partnerBehavior:Student..Tears assignment & stomps feetConsequence/Outcome:and as a result...Sent to his desk to complete the assignmentTherefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidAvoiding working with a partner is the pay-off for the behavior!!Working with a partner
37 What is the Function of/Pay-off for Jane’s Behavior? Jane, a fifth grade student, was referred for disruptive behavior to the student support team by her teacher, Mrs. O’Neil. After interviewing Mrs. O’Neil and conducting several observations of Jane in the classroom, the team determined that during transitions (from lunch, recess, dismissal) in the hallway when staff are present, she shouts profanities. Then, adults spend time talking with her about her behavior.
38 Jane’s Summary Statement Routine: During ________________TransitionsAntecedent/Trigger:When ..Behavior:Student..Consequence/Outcome: and as a result...Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidShouts profanitiesStaff are presentAdults talk to herAttention from AdultsAdult Attention is the pay-off for the behavior!!38
39 Activity 4Using the scenarios on pages 8 and 9, please identify the problem behavior, routine, antecedent, and consequenceUse this information to determine the most likely FUNCTION of the problem behavior
40 Scenario #1When asked to sit with to his peers in morning circle, Mike pulls the hair of the girl sitting next to him. The teacher tells Mike to go back and sit at his desk.Routine: “During ________________ “Morning CircleConsequence/Outcome:and as a result…Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidAntecedent/Trigger:“When …Behavior:Student does…Sent to sit at deskAsked to sit with peersPulls hair of girl next to himSitting at morning circle
41 Scenario #2 Routine: “During ________________ “ When Selena’s teachers present multiple difficult task demands in language arts, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful (and she misses the assignment).Routine: “During ________________ “Language ArtsAntecedent/Trigger:“When …Behavior:Student does..Consequence/Outcome:and as a result…Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidSent to officeMultiple demands for difficult tasksMakes negative self-statements & writes profane languageDifficult Tasks4141
42 Scenario #3 Routine: “During ______________________ “ After interviewing Johnny’s teacher and conducting several observations, Johnny’s team determined that when seated next to peers during less structured class time (free time, cooperative group art projects, etc.), Johnny tears up his paper and stomps his feet. After Johnny engages in this behavior his peers laugh at him.Routine: “During ______________________ “Less structured class timeAntecedent/Trigger:“When …Behavior:Student does…Consequence/Outcome:and as a result…Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidPeers laughSeated next to peersTears up paper & stomps feetPeer Attention4242
43 Antecedents/ Triggers After we defined the behavior (the What) & know Where & When & Why the behavior occurs…Then: We ask: Are there any events that happen outside of the routine that “SET UP” the behavior (make it more likely to occur)?4Setting Events2Antecedents/ Triggers1Behavior3Consequence/ Outcome43
44 Setting EventsInfrequent events that temporarily impact the antecedent to increase or decrease the value of the behavioral outcome.Either increase or decrease the likelihood that a behavior will occurSetting EventsAntecedentsBehaviorConsequence
45 Antecedents vs. Setting Events Antecedents - occur immediately before and act as “triggers” for problem behaviorSetting Events – indirectly “set-up” the problem behavior by temporarily altering the value of maintaining consequences.*Setting events can help us PREDICT that the problem behavior will occur.
46 Common Setting Events: “Set ups” Lack of sleep or foodHaving a fight on the way to schoolBad grade on a test / reprimandsForgetting to take medicationSubstitute teacher / changes in routineNon-examples:Diagnosis of autism or ADHD“Bad” home life* Note: Setting Events can be difficult to identify, are often unknown.4646
47 Setting Events: Example When peers approach Victor in the hallway and say, “Hello”, he yells “Leave me alone!” and “Go away!” Peers say he is weird and walk away. This is most likely to happen on days that Victor has an argument with his sibling before school.What is the triggering antecedent?- Peers approach and say “hello”What is the setting event?- Argument with sibling before school4747
48 Summary Statement with Setting Event In Social Studies, when asked to read independently, Ben (a strong reader) often gets out of his seat, walks around the room, and jokes with peers. Ben’s peers laugh and talk to him as he walks by. This behavior is most likely to happen on days when Ben’s parents bring him to school (i.e., he doesn’t ride the bus with friends).Routine: During ______________Social StudiesSetting eventMore likely when…AntecedentWhen…BehaviorThe student…Consequenceand as a result…Peers laugh and talk to BenAsked to read independentlyOut of seat, walks around room, jokes with peersBen brought to school by parentsFunction:To…Access peer attention48
49 Activity 5Using the information presented in the scenarios on pages 10 and 11, please identify:1. The triggering antecedent2. The most likely FUNCTION of the problem behavior3. The setting event
50 Scenario #1When Jason is asked to outline a book chapter in Language Arts, he often argues, refuses to work and uses profanity which results in being sent to the office for ‘disrespect’. This behavior is more likely if Jason has an altercation with a peer on the bus on the way to school.Routine:Language ArtsSetting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceArguing with teacher, refusing to work, profanityTeacher sends himto the officeFunction:Peer altercation on bus on the way to schoolAsked to outline chapterEscape Task50
51 Scenario #2During story time when the teacher asks other students questions, Michelle blurts out responses or begins crying if she is not called on. When this happens, the educational assistant moves in closely and talks privately to Michelle in an effort to calm her. This is most likely to happen on days when Michelle has not had her medication.Routine:Story timeSetting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceBlurts out responses, criesEA talks privately with the studentFunction:Students does not take medicationOther students asked to answer questionsAdult Attention51
52 Adapt BSP and implementation as needed based on on-going monitoring The Basic FBA to BSP ProcessThis Module1. Define the Problem Behavior2. Conduct assessment for behavior support planninga. Functional Behavioral Assessment• Defining behavior in observable & measureable terms• Ask staff and student about where, when, & why behavior occurs• See the behavior during specified routines• Hypothesize a final summary of where, when, & why behavior occurs3. Design an individualized behavior support plan (BSP)• Ensure technical adequacy• Ensure contextual fit4. Ensure Fidelity of Implementation5. Monitor Plan Impact on Student BehaviorAdapt BSP and implementation as needed based on on-going monitoringAdapted from Horner, Albin, Todd, Newton & Sprague, 2011
53 Adapt BSP and implementation as needed based on on-going monitoring The Basic FBA to BSP Process1. Define the Problem Behavior2. Conduct assessment for behavior support planninga. Functional Behavioral Assessment• Defining behavior in observable & measureable terms• Ask staff and student about where, when, & why behavior occurs• See the behavior during specified routines• Hypothesize a final summary of where, when, & why behavior occursNext Module3. Design an individualized behavior support plan (BSP)• Ensure technical adequacy• Ensure contextual fit4. Ensure Fidelity of Implementation5. Monitor Plan Impact on Student BehaviorAdapt BSP and implementation as needed based on on-going monitoringAdapted from Horner, Albin, Todd, Newton & Sprague, 2011
54 Key Points from Module 1 (page 11 ) The Basic FBA to BSP process is for use with students who engage in problem behaviors that are not dangerous.In understanding the ABC’s of behavior, the starting point is the behavior (B), then what happens before the behavior (A) and after the behavior (C).Behaviors need to be explained in an observable & measurable way, so that anyone who does not know that student could point out the behavior.All behavior serves a function: either to OBTAIN or AVOID something (attention, activities, or tangible items).
55 Check #1 (page 12)Define the ABC’s of understanding the function of behavior:A____________________B____________________C____________________What should you always do first?
56 Check #2 Identify the Setting Event in the following scenario: During recess, when Lizzy loses a game she sometimes yells, cries, and falls to the ground. Lizzy’s teacher has noticed that this behavior happens more often on days when she is late to school and misses breakfast in the cafeteria.
57 Check #3Please use the boxes on page 12 to help you construct a hypothetical problem statement.Make sure you include:Observable, measurable definition of problem behaviorTriggering antecedentConsequenceProbable FunctionSetting event
58 Task Over the next week… 1. Select a student in your school who has persistent problem behavior that is not dangerous. Identify:1 appropriate behavior (a behavior you would like to see increase)1 inappropriate behavior (that you would like to decrease)2. Define both behaviors in observable and measurable terms, and identify the antecedents that happen before and consequences that follow each behavior
59 Comments/Questions about Module 1 At the bottom of page 13 please write any comments/questions you may have pertaining to Module 1.Thank you for your time & attention!