Presentation on theme: "Basic FBA to BSP Module 1: Defining & Understanding Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic FBA to BSP Module 1: Defining & Understanding Behavior Using FBA to Develop Function-Based Support for Students with Mild to Moderate Problem BehaviorModule 1: Defining & Understanding Behavior
2 Participant’s Guidebook Checks for UnderstandingComments/QuestionsTasksKey PointsObjectivesReviewActivities
3 Module 1 Objectives By the end of this module you should be able to: Define observable behavior (What).Identify events that predict When & Where the specific behavior occurs.Identify Why a student engages in the specific behavior.Construct hypothesis statements that summarize the What, When, Where, & Why of a student’s behavior
4 The A-B-C’s of Understanding Behavior A= Antecedent. Find out the events that occur right before the behavior. When and Where?B= Behavior. Find out What is the observable problem behavior?C= Consequence. Find out what happens after the behavior occurs? WHY?
5 Always Start by Defining the Problem Behavior 2Antecedents/TriggersWhen _____happens….1Behavior:the student does (what)__3Consequence/Function..and as a result ______5
6 Defining Observable Behaviors Definitions of behaviors need to be:Observable: The behavior is an action that can be seen.Measurable: The behavior can be counted or timed.Defined so clearly that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts!
7 Observable/Measurable Definition Non-observable/measurable Definition Talks when teacher is lecturing, calling out in a loud voice, singingDisruptive behaviorsDraws pictures during group work timeOff-task behaviorsThrowing objects, Kicking over chairsAngry, Hostile BehaviorsCalls peers namesInappropriate languageTapping/ drumming on desk, looking around the classroomAttention problemsRefusal to do work, failure to follow directionsNon-complianceYells “No” or “You can’t make me” when given directionDefiance
8 Are these observable, & measurable? Gets out of desk and hits other studentsHas separation anxiety (from parent)SpaceyReads 120 wpmSays she hears voicesEmotionally disturbedDoesn’t like classmates
9 Defining Behavior: Tip #1: Ask yourself, “What does the behavior look like?” Talking out: Any verbalization made by the student that was not initiated by the teacher and/or distracts others from the assigned tasks in the classroom.
10 Tip #2 Provide Examples and Non-examples of the problem behavior Examples of Talking Out:Answering a question directed to another student by the teacher.Talking when the teacher is giving directionsTalking to peers during independent work timeNon-examples of Talking Out:Answering a question that the teacher directed to the childYelling to another student during recessTalking with a peer during group work
11 Behavior = Talking outDefinition: Any verbalization made by the student that was not initiated by the teacher and/or distracts others from the assigned tasks in the classroom.Examples of Talking Out:Answering a question directed to another student by the teacher.Talking when the teacher is giving directionsTalking to peers during independent work timeNon-examples of Talking Out:Answering a question that the teacher directed to the child.Yelling to another student during recessTalking with a peer during group work
12 Activity 1Using your guidebook (page 4) provide an observable & measurable definition for ONE of these behaviors:Jeff is always disruptive in class.Hailey is constantly off-task during math.Chris is defiant.Brandon is angry and hostile.Alexis uses inappropriate language.
13 Is your definition so clear that a person unfamiliar with the student could recognize the behavior without any doubts?
14 Once you have defined the problem behavior… THEN: Where & When does the behavior occur?RoutinesTriggering Antecedents2Antecedents/TriggersWhen _____happens….1Behavior:the student does (what)__14
15 WHERE and WHEN Does the Problem Behavior Occur? WHERE = Routines where the problem behavior is most likelyExamples: During math class, gym class, lunch, recessWHEN = Specific events (or antecedents) within a routine that “trigger” the problem behaviorExamples: When given double-digit addition, given directions
16 Identifying Antecedent “Triggers” Identify the event, action, or object that occurs right before the problem behavior (When…)Signals the behavior“Sets it off” (trigger)Identify the ANTECEDENT in these examples:At the lunch table, when told to shut up by a peer, Ben hits the studentIn language arts class, when asked to read aloud in class, Tracy gets up and tells jokesDuring circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying
17 The student does __________ Activity 2 (page 5): Identify the behavior, routine, & antecedent in the following scenariosFrame them in the blanks/boxes with the following statements:Routine: “During _______________”Antecedent/Trigger:When _______Behavior:The student does __________17
18 Scenario #1During passing period in the hallway before recess, when peers tease him about his walk, A.J. calls them names and hits them.Routine: “During __________________________”Passing Period before RecessAntecedentAntecedentBehaviorWhen…When…When…The student...The student...PEERS TEASE ABOUT HIS WALKCALLS NAMES & HITS18
19 STARES & DOES NOT RESPOND TO DIRECTIONS Scenario #2In math class, Bea stares off into space and does not respond to teacher directions when she is given a difficult math problem.Routine: “During________________”Math ClassAntecedentBehaviorWhen…When…The student…GIVEN A DIFFICULT MATH PROBLEMSTARES & DOES NOT RESPOND TO DIRECTIONS19
20 Once you have defined the behavior (the What) & know Where & When the behavior occurs… Then: WHY does the behavior continue to occur (what happens right afterwards)? Step #1: What is the CONSEQUENCE? Step #2: What is the PAYOFF?2Routines/Antecedents/Setting Events:When _____happens….1Behavior:the student does (what)__3Consequence/Outcome..and as a result ______20
21 Step #1: Determine What Happens Right After the Behavior (the Consequence or Outcome). It may help to think: “and as a result ______________”Example (AntecedentBehaviorConsequence)During recess, when peers tease him, Ben hits his peers and they leave him alone.During reading, When asked to read aloud Tracy tells jokes, the other students laugh, and she is sent to the office (missing the assignment).During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying, the teacher stops circle time and comforts her.
22 Activity 3 (pages 6 &7): Identify the behavior, routine, antecedent and consequence in the scenarios Frame them in the blanks/boxes with the following statements:Routine: “During _______________”Antecedent/Trigger:When _______Behavior:The student does __________Consequence/Outcome:… and as a result__________2222
23 Throws pencil & rips paper Scenario #1Joe throws his pencil and rips his paper during math whenever he is given double-digit math problems. This results in him getting sent to the office. Routine: “During ________________”Math classAntecedent/Trigger:When..Behavior:Student does..Consequence/Outcome:and as a result…Given double-digit math problemsThrows pencil & rips paperSent to the office
24 Consequence/Outcome: Scenario #2Nancy cries during reading time when she is asked to work by herself. This results in the teacher sitting and reading with her. Routine: “During ________________”ReadingAntecedent/Trigger:When…Behavior:Student does..Consequence/Outcome:and as a result...Asked to work by herselfThe teacher sits & reads with herCries
25 Step #2: Understanding WHY the Behavior Occurs When understanding behavior, we want to learn what FUNCTION (or purpose) the behavior is serving for the student (what is the pay-off for the student?)You need to understand from the student’s perspective…What are they getting (or trying to get) from engaging in this behaviorWhat is the most important thing that the student wants to gain (or avoid) by using this behavior
27 Most Common Functions of Behavior To Avoid/ Escape:Difficult TaskBoring TaskEasy TaskPhysical demandNon-preferred activityPeerStaffReprimandsTo Obtain/ Get :Peer attentionAdult attentionDesired activityDesired object/ itemsSensory stimulation: auditory, tactile, etc.
28 Examples of Function in School Obtain/Get ReinforcersI yell and others look at meI fight and others listen to meI wander and people talk to meI hit in order to get toys from other kids.Escape/Avoid AversivesI cry when work gets hard and someone will help meI throw a book during math class and the teacher will remove me from classI stand out of the way during PE and the other game participants will avoid throwing me the ball.
29 Understanding FUNCTION: WHY? What is the Payoff? Use information about the routine, antecedent, behavior, & consequence to determine that the function of the behavior is either to:-Get or Avoid something in the environmentRoutine: During ________________Consequence/OutCome:and as a result… __________Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid ____________Antecedent/Trigger:When _________Behavior:Student does _________
30 What is the Function of/ Pay-off for Bobby’s Behavior? When asked to work with a partner in science, Bobby tears up his assignment and stomps his feet. The teacher then has Bobby sit down at his desk to complete the same assignment, while the rest of the class works together with their partners. Get?? Avoid?? What? An Activity? Peers? Teacher?
31 Bobby’s Summary Statement Routine: During ________________ScienceAntecedent/Trigger:When ..Asked to work with a partnerBehavior:Student..Tears assignment & stomps feetConsequence/Outcome:and as a result...Sent to his desk to complete the assignmentTherefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidAvoiding working with a partner is the pay-off for the behavior!!Working with a partner
32 What is the Function of/Pay-off for Jane’s Behavior? Jane, a fifth grade student, was referred for disruptive behavior to the student support team by her teacher, Mrs. O’Neil. After interviewing Mrs. O’Neil and conducting several observations of Jane in the classroom, the team determined that during transitions (from lunch, recess, dismissal) in the hallway when staff are present, she shouts profanities. Then, adults spend time talking with her about her behavior.
33 Jane’s Summary Statement Routine: During ________________TransitionsAntecedent/Trigger:When ..Behavior:Student..Consequence/Outcome: and as a result...Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidShouts profanitiesStaff are presentAdults talk to herAttention from AdultsAdult Attention is the pay-off for the behavior!!33
34 Activity 4Using the scenarios on pages 8 and 9, please identify the problem behavior, routine, antecedent, and consequenceUse this information to determine the most likely FUNCTION of the problem behavior
35 Scenario #1When asked to sit with to his peers in morning circle, Mike pulls the hair of the girl sitting next to him. The teacher tells Mike to go back and sit at his desk.Routine: “During ________________ “Morning CircleConsequence/Outcome:and as a result…Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidAntecedent/Trigger:“When …Behavior:Student does…Sent to sit at deskAsked to sit with peersPulls hair of girl next to himSitting at morning circle
36 Scenario #2 Routine: “During ________________ “ When Selena’s teachers present multiple difficult task demands in language arts, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful (and she misses the assignment).Routine: “During ________________ “Language ArtsAntecedent/Trigger:“When …Behavior:Student does..Consequence/Outcome:and as a result…Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidSent to officeMultiple demands for difficult tasksMakes negative self-statements & writes profane languageDifficult Tasks3636
37 Scenario #3 Routine: “During ______________________ “ After interviewing Johnny’s teacher and conducting several observations, Johnny’s team determined that when seated next to peers during less structured class time (free time, cooperative group art projects, etc.), Johnny tears up his paper and stomps his feet. After Johnny engages in this behavior his peers laugh at him.Routine: “During ______________________ “Less structured class timeAntecedent/Trigger:“When …Behavior:Student does…Consequence/Outcome:and as a result…Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoidPeers laughSeated next to peersTears up paper & stomps feetPeer Attention3737
38 Antecedents/ Triggers After we defined the behavior (the What) & know Where & When & Why the behavior occurs…Then: We ask: Are there any events that happen outside of the routine that “SET UP” the behavior (make it more likely to occur)?4Setting Events2Antecedents/ Triggers1Behavior3Consequence/ Outcome38
39 Setting EventsInfrequent events that temporarily impact the antecedent to increase or decrease the value of the behavioral outcome.Either increase or decrease the likelihood that a behavior will occurSetting EventsAntecedentsBehaviorConsequence
40 Antecedents vs. Setting Events Antecedents - occur immediately before and act as “triggers” for problem behaviorSetting Events – indirectly “set-up” the problem behavior by temporarily altering the value of maintaining consequences.*Setting events can help us PREDICT that the problem behavior will occur.
41 Common Setting Events: “Set ups” Lack of sleep or foodHaving a fight on the way to schoolBad grade on a test / reprimandsForgetting to take medicationSubstitute teacher / changes in routineNon-examples:Diagnosis of autism or ADHD“Bad” home life* Note: Setting Events can be difficult to identify, are often unknown.4141
42 Setting Events: Example When peers approach Victor in the hallway and say, “Hello”, he yells “Leave me alone!” and “Go away!” Peers say he is weird and walk away. This is most likely to happen on days that Victor has an argument with his sibling before school.What is the triggering antecedent?- Peers approach and say “hello”What is the setting event?- Argument with sibling before school4242
43 Summary Statement with Setting Event In Social Studies, when asked to read independently, Ben (a strong reader) often gets out of his seat, walks around the room, and jokes with peers. Ben’s peers laugh and talk to him as he walks by. This behavior is most likely to happen on days when Ben’s parents bring him to school (i.e., he doesn’t ride the bus with friends).Routine: During ______________Social StudiesSetting eventMore likely when…AntecedentWhen…BehaviorThe student…Consequenceand as a result…Peers laugh and talk to BenAsked to read independentlyOut of seat, walks around room, jokes with peersBen brought to school by parentsFunction:To…Access peer attention43
44 Activity 5Using the information presented in the scenarios on pages 10 and 11, please identify:1. The triggering antecedent2. The most likely FUNCTION of the problem behavior3. The setting event
45 Scenario #1When Jason is asked to outline a book chapter in Language Arts, he often argues, refuses to work and uses profanity which results in being sent to the office for ‘disrespect’. This behavior is more likely if Jason has an altercation with a peer on the bus on the way to school.Routine:Language ArtsSetting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceArguing with teacher, refusing to work, profanityTeacher sends himto the officeFunction:Peer altercation on bus on the way to schoolAsked to outline chapterEscape Task45
46 Scenario #2During story time when the teacher asks other students questions, Michelle blurts out responses or begins crying if she is not called on. When this happens, the educational assistant moves in closely and talks privately to Michelle in an effort to calm her. This is most likely to happen on days when Michelle has not had her medication.Routine:Story timeSetting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceBlurts out responses, criesEA talks privately with the studentFunction:Students does not take medicationOther students asked to answer questionsAdult Attention46
47 Sample Summary Statement BRENDA HITS OTHER STUDENTS - WHY WOULD SHE DO THIS?AntecedentsBehaviorConsequencesSusan calls Brenda a “creep face” and laughs at herBrenda punches Susan on the armSusan stops laughing and walks awaySummary StatementWHEN ANTECEDENT , BEHAVIOR BECAUSE____CONSEQUENCEOTHER STUDENTS CALL HER NAMES OR TEASE HERA group of students at recess call Brenda fatBrenda kicks several of themThe students run awayBRENDA HURTS THEMTHEY GO AWAY (Avoid Peers)!This slide contains an Animation!Brenda spells a word incorrectly during an oral review and the child behind her laughsBrenda pulls the child’s hairBrenda is sent to the officeFacilitator Script:Let’s pretend you have been observing a kindergartner named Brenda for several days. You have seen Brenda hit or push peers four times. Here are ABC statements for each of those observations.Click to bring up each ABC statementHere is the format of a summary statement. How would you fill this in? (Click to bring up each component)What is the function of her hitting others? (A) to escape from peers teasing herBrenda is playing blocks with Ben. Ben takes a block from BrendaBrenda hits Ben over the head with another blockBen puts the block down and runs away
50 WHEN ANTECEDENT , BEHAVIOR BECAUSE____CONSEQUENCE Staff use of Possible Motivation requires knowledge of ABC & Behavioral FunctionSummary StatementWHEN ANTECEDENT , BEHAVIOR BECAUSE____CONSEQUENCEOTHER STUDENTS CALL HER NAMES OR TEASE HERBRENDA HURTS THEMTHEY GO AWAY (Avoid Peers)
51 Function of Behavior = Possible Motivation on Referral
52 Key Points from Module 1 (page 11 ) In understanding the ABC’s of behavior, the starting point is the behavior (B), then what happens before the behavior (A) and after the behavior (C).Behaviors need to be explained in an observable & measurable way, so that anyone who does not know that student could point out the behavior.All behavior serves a function: either to OBTAIN or AVOID something (attention, activities, or tangible items).
53 Check #1 (page 12)Define the ABC’s of understanding the function of behavior:A____________________B____________________C____________________What should you always do first?
54 Check #2 Identify the Setting Event in the following scenario: During recess, when Lizzy loses a game she sometimes yells, cries, and falls to the ground. Lizzy’s teacher has noticed that this behavior happens more often on days when she is late to school and misses breakfast in the cafeteria.
55 Check #3Please use the boxes on page 12 to help you construct a hypothetical problem statement.Make sure you include:Observable, measurable definition of problem behaviorTriggering antecedentConsequenceProbable FunctionSetting event
56 Task Over the next weeks… 1. Select a student in your school who has persistent problem behavior that is not dangerous. Identify:Complete the ABC Tracker for that studentWhenever you see an occurrence of the problem behavior each day, write down the A-B-C on the tracker formAt the end of the week, or after seeing 5-6 occurrences of the behavior, form a Summary Statement at the bottom of the page2. Remember to use A-B-C to inform “Possible Motivation” when completing referral forms