Presentation on theme: "A Practical Approach to Functional Behavioral Assessment"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Practical Approach to Functional Behavioral Assessment Rob HornerUniversity of Oregon
2 Goals Define core features of FBA and levels of FBA procedures. What is FBA?Why is FBA important?What are the role of families, teachers, families?Define procedures for identifying “routines” and “controlling antecedents” (e.g. triggers).Define procedures for identifying maintaining reinforcers (e.g. “function” of problem behaviors)Define procedures for identifying setting events.
3 Functional Behavioral Assessment Defined Functional behavioral assessment is a process for identifying the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior.An FBA results in a hypothesis statement that defines:What is the behavior of concern?What are the conditions where it is most and least likely? (routines, activities, expectations, social)What are the reinforcers that maintain the behavior?Are there any larger conditions that make the whole process more likely? (setting events).
4 Primary Purposes of Functional Behavioral Assessment The primary purpose of functional behavioral assessment is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of behavior support.Behavior support plans built from functional assessment are more effectiveDidden et al., 1997Carr et al., 1999Create order out of chaosdefine contextual information, where, when, with whom, etc.Professional accountability (IDEA, 1997)kimberly
6 Levels of Functional Behavioral Assessment Informal Functional Behavioral AssessmentDone in school by typical teachers/staffDone as part of normal daily problem solvingLevel I: Basic FBADone by trained members of school settingTypically involves interview(s), and brief observationLevel II: Complex FBADone by behaviorally trained member of school or districtTypically involves interviews and observationLevel III: Functional AnalysisDone by trained behavior analystInvolves interviews, direct observation, and systematic manipulation of conditions.
7 Levels of Functional Behavioral Assessment All levels of FBA focus on the same basic goals:Define the behavior of concernDetermine if behavior is a response classIdentify the events that reliably predict occurrence and non-occurrenceIdentify the consequences that maintain the behavior in the most common “predictor conditions”Identify setting events that increase likelihood of problem behavior.Summary statementSetting Event Antecedent Prob Beh Consequence4213
8 Functional Assessment places problem behavior in “context” Predictors/Controlling Antecedent StimuliMaintaining ConsequencesSetting Events/Establishing OperationsSetting --> Predictor --> Problem --> MaintainingEvent (Antecedent) Behavior Consequence
9 Problem Behavior Operational Definition Organized in Response Classes ObservableCountableOrganized in Response ClassesA response class is a group of behaviors that are maintained by the same reinforcer (e.g. adult attention)
10 Describe Problem Behavior Behavior is observable and countable.Which of these is observable and countable?(a) Hit others with hand (b) Cry(c) Angry (d) Spit(e) Takes out revenge (e) Is mean(f) Non-compliant (g) Scream(h) Inconsiderate (i) Breaks objects
11 Describe Problem Behavior Behavior is observable and countable.Which of these is observable and countable?(a) Hit others with hand (b) Cry(c) Angry (d) Spit(e) Takes out revenge (e) Is mean(f) Non-compliant (g) Scream(h) Inconsiderate (i) Breaks objects
12 Are these observable, & measurable? Gets out of desk and hits other studentsHas separation anxiety (from parent)SpaceyReads 120 wpmSays she hears voicesEmotionally disturbedDoes not like classmates
13 Activity1. Provide an observable & measurable definition for ONE of these behaviors:Jeff is always disruptive in class.Hailey is constantly off-task during math.Chris is defiant.Brandon is angry and hostile.Alexis uses inappropriate language.2. Define an observable and measurable description of a problem behavior for your target person.Share your description with those in your group.
14 Response ClassDefined: Set of topographically different behaviors that are maintained by the same consequence.You need to know (a) observable descriptions of the behaviors and (b) what is the presumed maintaining reinforcer.(Screaming, hitting, breaking )maintained by adult attention(Crying, head down, saying “no, no, no” ) maintained by escape from academic tasks.Organize behavior support around response classes embedded within functional routines.
15 Response Class Which of these behaviors form a response class? Scream Name callingThrow Self-biteKick Self-induced vomitSpit StripHit own head Run away
16 Response ClassWhich of these behaviors form a response class? (maintaining function)Scream (attention) Name calling (attention)Throw (attention) Self-bite (attention)Kick (avoid tasks ) Self-induced vomit (avoid task)Spit (avoid tasks) Strip (attention)Hit head (attention) Run away (avoid tasks)
17 Response ClassWhich of these behaviors form a response class? (maintaining function)Scream (attention) Name calling (attention)Throw (attention) Self-bite (attention)Kick (avoid tasks ) Self-induced vomit (avoid task)Spit (avoid tasks) Strip (attention)Hit head (attention) Run away (avoid tasks)
18 Functional Behavioral Assessment Routine/ActivityImmediate AntecedentSdTriggerBehavior:Operationally DefinedOrganized by Response Class
19 WHERE, WHEN, WITH WHOM Does the Problem Behavior Occur? WHERE = Routines where the problem behavior is most and least likelyExamples: During math class, gym class, lunch, recessWHEN = Specific events (or antecedents) within a routine that are most and least likely to “trigger” the problem behaviorExamples: When given double-digit addition, given directionsWITH WHOM = Specific people with whom the problem behavior is most and least likely.
20 Identifying Antecedent “Triggers” Identify the events, actions, or objects that occur right before the problem behavior (When…)Signals the behavior“Sets it off” (trigger)Identify the ANTECEDENT in these examples:At the lunch table, when told to “shut up” by a peer, Ben hits the studentIn language arts class, when asked to read aloud in class, Tracy gets up and tells jokesDuring circle time, when praised Jessie starts cryingFor each example:What was the ROUTINE:
21 The student does __________ Activity: Identify the behavior, routine, & antecedent in the following scenariosFrame them in the blanks/boxes with the following statements:Routine: “During _______________”Behavior:The student does __________Antecedent/Trigger:When _______21
22 Scenario #1During passing period in the hallway before recess, when peers tease him about his walk, A.J. calls them names and hits them.Routine: “During __________________________”Passing Period before RecessAntecedentAntecedentBehaviorWhen…When…When…The student...The student...PEERS TEASE ABOUT HIS WALKCALLS NAMES & HITS22
23 STARES & DOES NOT RESPOND TO DIRECTIONS Scenario #2In math class, Bea stares off into space and does not respond to teacher directions when she is given a difficult math problem.Routine: “During________________”Math ClassAntecedentBehaviorWhen…When…The student…GIVEN A DIFFICULT MATH PROBLEMSTARES & DOES NOT RESPOND TO DIRECTIONS23
24 Maintaining Consequence Always identify the consequence in “context” (e.g. with the behavior and the routine/trigger).Define the behavior, routine, Sd…then ask about consequenceTypically define the single most powerful consequence. Avoid labeling multiple consequences for a specific context- behavior combination.Do not indicate “get attention, escape work, and obtain toys”… rather identify “the consequence that is most powerful.”Consider different consequences for “chains” of behavior.Alan’s “out of seat” behavior is maintained by escape, but his “tease peers” is maintained by attention.
26 Step #1: Determine What Happens Right After the Behavior (the Consequence or Outcome). It may help to think: “and as a result _____________”Example (AntecedentBehaviorConsequence)During recess, when peers tease him, Ben hits his peers and they leave him alone.During reading, When asked to read aloud Tracy tells jokes, the other students laugh, and she is sent to the office (missing the assignment).During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying, the teacher stops circle time and comforts her.
27 Routine: “During _______________” Activity 3 Identify the behavior, routine, antecedent and consequence in the scenariosFrame them in the blanks/boxes with the following statements:Routine: “During _______________”Antecedent/Trigger:When _______Behavior:The student does __________Consequence/Outcome:… and as a result__________2727
28 Throws pencil & rips paper Scenario #1Joe throws his pencil and rips his paper during math whenever he is given double-digit math problems. This results in him getting sent to the office. Routine: “During ________________”Math classAntecedent/Trigger:When..Behavior:Student does..Consequence/Outcome:and as a result…Given double-digit math problemsThrows pencil & rips paperSent to the office
29 Consequence/Outcome: Scenario #2Nancy cries during reading time when she is asked to work by herself. This results in the teacher sitting and reading with her. Routine: “During ________________”ReadingAntecedent/Trigger:When…Behavior:Student does..Consequence/Outcome:and as a result...Asked to work by herselfThe teacher sits & reads with herCries
30 Step #2: Understanding WHY the Behavior Occurs When understanding behavior, we want to learn what FUNCTION (or purpose) the behavior is serving for the student (what is the pay-off for the student?)You need to understand from the student’s perspective…What are they getting (or trying to get) from engaging in this behaviorWhat is the most important thing that the student wants to gain (or avoid) by using this behavior
31 Most Common Functions of Behavior To Avoid/ Escape:Difficult TasksBoring TasksEasy TasksPhysical demandsNon-preferred activityPeer TauntingStaff ReprimandsTo Obtain/ Get :Peer attentionAdult attentionDesired activityDesired object/ itemsSensory stimulation: auditory, tactile, etc. (automatic)
32 Examples of Function in School Obtain/Get ReinforcersI yell and others look at meI fight and others listen to meI wander and people talk to meI hit in order to get toys from other kids.Escape/Avoid AversivesI cry when work gets hard and someone will help meI throw a book during math class and the teacher will remove me from classI stand out of the way during PE and the other game participants will avoid throwing me the ball.
33 Understanding FUNCTION: WHY? What is the Payoff? Use information about the routine, antecedent, behavior, & consequence to determine that the function of the behavior is either to:-Get or Avoid something in the environmentRoutine: During ________________Consequence/OutCome:and as a result… __________Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid ____________Antecedent/Trigger:When _________Behavior:Student does _________
34 Setting EventsEvents that change the likelihood of a behavior by momentarily altering the value of the maintaining consequence.Last item to defineImportant in about 20-30% of situationsWhen important, they are often very important.
36 Example:When given math worksheets & other assignments, Caesar does not do his work, uses profanity, & disrupts lessons, especially, when he has worked alone for 30 minutes without peer contact. His work does not get completed, & he avoids teachers requests.
37 SettingEventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesSent to officeWorked alonefor 30minutesNoncompliance& use ofprofanityMathworksheetassignmentEscapedifficult work
38 “Alba”During recess Alba will steal equipment, and push to the front of lines when not actively included in a game (especially with “wall ball,” and “4 square”). This pattern is most likely when Alba has been working alone previous class period. Her behavior appears to be maintained by accessing peer attention.
39 Testable Hypothesis Steal ball, Push to the front of the line. Setting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesSteal ball,Push to thefront of theline.Lack of peercontact for 30minutes.Not part ofgame atrecessPeerattention
40 What is wrong with / missing from this summary statement? Sarah often leaves her seat without permission, walks around the room and talks with peers. Sarah’s peers laugh and talk with her. This behavior is more likely if she has forgotten to take her medication before school. The function of Sarah’s behavior is to gain access to teacher attention and to escape tasks.Routine: _____________Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceAttention from PeersFunction:Adult Attention andEscape from TasksSarah forgets to take medicationWalking around room, talking with peers
41 Video Examples Example A Example B Example C Self-in Playgrd Academ RayHigh SchProblem BehaviorRoutineAntecedent Stimulus (Trigger)Maintaining ReinforcerNote: Not enough info for Setting EventTracy
42 One Tool for FBA Interviews FACTSGathering data to build an hypothesis statement.Interview the person(s) who knows the student best.20-40 min interviewUse the interview for “basic questions” and “follow up questions”Follow up to test and clarify initial responses
44 Application (alone or in group) Using YOUR target personComplete the FACTSDescription of behaviorWhere/when behavior is most and least likelyPresumed maintaining consequence/functionHypothesis statementDegree of confidenceDefine when/where you would observe to validate your hypothesisShare with your group
45 Validating a FACTS summary Direct observation in the context most associated with problem behavior.Observe the problem behavior at least 5 times.Use ABC chart, FAOI, simple journalAssess:Is problem behavior as described?Is context as hypothesized (setting event, antecedent stimulus)Is maintaining reinforcer provided 67% of events?
47 Functional Assessment Observation Form Name:Starting Date: Ending Date:Functional Assessment Observation FormPerceived FunctionsBehaviorsPredictorsGet/ObtainEscape/AvoidActualConseq.TimeTotalsDemand/RequestDifficult TaskTransitionsInterruptionAlone (no attention)AttentionDesired Item/ActivitySelf-StimulationActivity ( )PersonOther/Don't KnowEvents:Date:Comments: (if nothing happened in period, write initials)
48 Functional Assessment Observation Form Name:Starting Date: Feb2 Ending Date: Feb2Functional Assessment Observation FormPerceived FunctionsBehaviorsPredictorsGet/ObtainEscape/AvoidActualConseq.TimeTotalsDemand/RequestDifficult TaskTransitionsInterruptionAlone (no attention)AttentionDesired Item/ActivitySelf-StimulationActivity ( )PersonOther/Don't KnowEvents:Date:MichellehitreprimandComments: (if nothing happened in period, write initials)9-1012,32, ,310-1111-11-210/15
49 Using Summary Statements to build Competing Behavior Model List FBA summary statementAdd “Desired Behavior” and maintaining consequenceAdd “Alternative Behavior”Socially appropriateFunctionally equivalent (same function as prob beh)Efficient
51 Acceptable Replacement Desired ReplacementBehaviorTypicalConsequencesPerform TaskTeacher praise and more workProblem BehaviorSetting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsMaintainingConsequencesTeacher request to do hard taskPeer ConflictProfanity,Hit TeacherAvoid, escape taskAcceptable ReplacementBehaviorAsk for Help, Ask for Break
52 Acceptable Replacement Desired ReplacementBehaviorTypicalConsequencesUse your target person… build the competing behavior model and share with others at your table.Problem BehaviorSetting EventsTriggeringAntecedentsMaintainingConsequencesAcceptable ReplacementBehavior
53 Summary Functional behavioral assessment defined Routine/ Antecedent StimulusMaintaining ConsequenceSetting EventOne approach for conducting brief functional behavioral assessment (FACTS)Development of hypothesis statement.
54 Next Steps Using FBA information to guide behavior support planning. Using function-based support logic to guide design of school behavior support systems/ district behavior support systems.