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A Practical Approach to Functional Behavioral Assessment Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org.

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Presentation on theme: "A Practical Approach to Functional Behavioral Assessment Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Practical Approach to Functional Behavioral Assessment Rob Horner University of Oregon

2 Goals Define core features of FBA and levels of FBA procedures.  What is FBA?  Why is FBA important?  What are the role of families, teachers, families? Define procedures for identifying “routines” and “controlling antecedents” (e.g. triggers). Define procedures for identifying maintaining reinforcers (e.g. “function” of problem behaviors) Define procedures for identifying setting events.

3 Functional Behavioral Assessment Defined Functional behavioral assessment is a process for identifying the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior. An FBA results in a hypothesis statement that defines: ◦ What is the behavior of concern? ◦ What are the conditions where it is most and least likely? (routines, activities, expectations, social) ◦ What are the reinforcers that maintain the behavior? ◦ Are there any larger conditions that make the whole process more likely? (setting events).

4 Primary Purposes of Functional Behavioral Assessment The primary purpose of functional behavioral assessment is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of behavior support.  Behavior support plans built from functional assessment are more effective  Didden et al., 1997  Carr et al., 1999 Create order out of chaos  define contextual information, where, when, with whom, etc. Professional accountability (IDEA, 1997) kimberly

5 Levels of Functional Behavioral Assessment Informal FBA Basic FBA Complex FBA Functional Analysis

6 Levels of Functional Behavioral Assessment Informal Functional Behavioral Assessment Done in school by typical teachers/staff Done as part of normal daily problem solving Level I: Basic FBA Done by trained members of school setting Typically involves interview(s), and brief observation Level II: Complex FBA Done by behaviorally trained member of school or district Typically involves interviews and observation Level III: Functional Analysis Done by trained behavior analyst Involves interviews, direct observation, and systematic manipulation of conditions.

7 Levels of Functional Behavioral Assessment All levels of FBA focus on the same basic goals: Define the behavior of concern Determine if behavior is a response class Identify the events that reliably predict occurrence and non-occurrence Identify the consequences that maintain the behavior in the most common “predictor conditions” Identify setting events that increase likelihood of problem behavior. Summary statement Setting Event  Antecedent  Prob Beh  Consequence

8 Functional Assessment places problem behavior in “context” Behavior Predictors/Controlling Antecedent Stimuli Maintaining Consequences Setting Events/Establishing Operations Setting --> Predictor --> Problem --> Maintaining Event (Antecedent) Behavior Consequence

9 Problem Behavior Operational Definition ◦ Observable ◦ Countable Organized in Response Classes ◦ A response class is a group of behaviors that are maintained by the same reinforcer (e.g. adult attention)

10 Describe Problem Behavior Behavior is observable and countable. Which of these is observable and countable? (a) Hit others with hand (b) Cry (c) Angry (d) Spit (e) Takes out revenge (e) Is mean (f) Non-compliant (g) Scream (h) Inconsiderate (i) Breaks objects

11 Describe Problem Behavior Behavior is observable and countable. Which of these is observable and countable? (a) Hit others with hand (b) Cry (c) Angry (d) Spit (e) Takes out revenge (e) Is mean (f) Non-compliant (g) Scream (h) Inconsiderate (i) Breaks objects

12 Are these observable, & measurable? Gets out of desk and hits other students Has separation anxiety (from parent) Spacey Reads 120 wpm Says she hears voices Emotionally disturbed Does not like classmates

13 Activity 1. Provide an observable & measurable definition for ONE of these behaviors:  Jeff is always disruptive in class.  Hailey is constantly off-task during math.  Chris is defiant.  Brandon is angry and hostile.  Alexis uses inappropriate language. 2. Define an observable and measurable description of a problem behavior for your target person.  Share your description with those in your group.

14 Response Class Defined: Set of topographically different behaviors that are maintained by the same consequence. You need to know (a) observable descriptions of the behaviors and (b) what is the presumed maintaining reinforcer.  (Screaming, hitting, breaking )maintained by adult attention  (Crying, head down, saying “no, no, no” ) maintained by escape from academic tasks. Organize behavior support around response classes embedded within functional routines.

15 Response Class Which of these behaviors form a response class? ◦ ScreamName calling ◦ ThrowSelf-bite ◦ KickSelf-induced vomit ◦ SpitStrip ◦ Hit own headRun away

16 Response Class Which of these behaviors form a response class? (maintaining function) ◦ Scream (attention) Name calling (attention) ◦ Throw(attention) Self-bite (attention) ◦ Kick (avoid tasks ) Self-induced vomit (avoid task) ◦ Spit (avoid tasks) Strip (attention) ◦ Hit head (attention) Run away (avoid tasks)

17 Response Class Which of these behaviors form a response class? (maintaining function) ◦ Scream (attention) Name calling (attention) ◦ Throw(attention) Self-bite (attention) ◦ Kick (avoid tasks ) Self-induced vomit (avoid task) ◦ Spit (avoid tasks) Strip (attention) ◦ Hit head (attention) Run away (avoid tasks)

18 Functional Behavioral Assessment Behavior: Operationally Defined Organized by Response Class Immediate Antecedent Sd Trigger Routine/Activity

19 WHERE, WHEN, WITH WHOM Does the Problem Behavior Occur? WHERE = Routines where the problem behavior is most and least likely  Examples: During math class, gym class, lunch, recess WHEN = Specific events (or antecedents) within a routine that are most and least likely to “trigger” the problem behavior  Examples: When given double-digit addition, given directions WITH WHOM = Specific people with whom the problem behavior is most and least likely.

20 Identifying Antecedent “Triggers” Identify the events, actions, or objects that occur right before the problem behavior (When…) ◦ Signals the behavior ◦ “Sets it off” (trigger) Identify the ANTECEDENT in these examples: ◦ At the lunch table, when told to “shut up” by a peer, Ben hits the student ◦ In language arts class, when asked to read aloud in class, Tracy gets up and tells jokes ◦ During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying For each example: What was the ROUTINE:

21 Activity: Identify the behavior, routine, & antecedent in the following scenarios Frame them in the blanks/boxes with the following statements: Routine: “During _______________” Antecedent/Trigger: When _______ Behavior: The student does __________

22 SCENARIO #1 During passing period in the hallway before recess, when peers tease him about his walk, A.J. calls them names and hits them. Routine: “During __________________________” PEERS TEASE ABOUT HIS WALK CALLS NAMES & HITS Passing Period before Recess Antecedent When… Antecedent When… The student... Behavior

23 SCENARIO #2 In math class, Bea stares off into space and does not respond to teacher directions when she is given a difficult math problem. Routine: “During________________” GIVEN A DIFFICULT MATH PROBLEM STARES & DOES NOT RESPOND TO DIRECTIONS Math Class When… Antecedent When… Behavior The student…

24 Maintaining Consequence Always identify the consequence in “context” (e.g. with the behavior and the routine/trigger).  Define the behavior, routine, Sd…then ask about consequence Typically define the single most powerful consequence. Avoid labeling multiple consequences for a specific context- behavior combination. ◦ Do not indicate “get attention, escape work, and obtain toys”… rather identify “the consequence that is most powerful.” ◦ Consider different consequences for “chains” of behavior.  Alan’s “out of seat” behavior is maintained by escape, but his “tease peers” is maintained by attention.

25 MAINTAINING CONSEQUENCES: FUNCTIONS

26 Step #1: Determine What Happens Right After the Behavior (the Consequence or Outcome). It may help to think: “and as a result _____________” Example (Antecedent  Behavior  Consequence) ◦ During recess, when peers tease him, Ben hits his peers and they leave him alone. ◦ During reading, When asked to read aloud Tracy tells jokes, the other students laugh, and she is sent to the office (missing the assignment). ◦ During circle time, when praised Jessie starts crying, the teacher stops circle time and comforts her.

27 Routine: “During _______________” ACTIVITY 3 IDENTIFY THE BEHAVIOR, ROUTINE, ANTECEDENT AND CONSEQUENCE IN THE SCENARIOS Frame them in the blanks/boxes with the following statements: 27 Antecedent/Trigger: When _______ Behavior: The student does __________ Consequence/Outcome: … and as a result __________

28 SCENARIO #1 Joe throws his pencil and rips his paper during math whenever he is given double-digit math problems. This results in him getting sent to the office. Routine: “During ________________” Antecedent/Trigger: When.. Behavior: Student does.. Consequence/Outcome: and as a result… Math class Throws pencil & rips paper Sent to the office Given double-digit math problems

29 SCENARIO #2 Nancy cries during reading time when she is asked to work by herself. This results in the teacher sitting and reading with her. Routine: “During ________________” Antecedent/Trigger: When… Behavior: Student does.. Consequence/Outcome: and as a result... Reading Cries Asked to work by herself The teacher sits & reads with her

30 STEP #2: UNDERSTANDING WHY THE BEHAVIOR OCCURS When understanding behavior, we want to learn what FUNCTION (or purpose) the behavior is serving for the student (what is the pay-off for the student?) You need to understand from the student’s perspective… ◦ What are they getting (or trying to get) from engaging in this behavior ◦ What is the most important thing that the student wants to gain (or avoid) by using this behavior

31 Most Common Functions of Behavior To Obtain/ Get :  Peer attention  Adult attention  Desired activity  Desired object/ items  Sensory stimulation: auditory, tactile, etc. (automatic) To Avoid/ Escape:  Difficult Tasks  Boring Tasks  Easy Tasks  Physical demands  Non-preferred activity  Peer Taunting  Staff Reprimands

32 Obtain/Get Reinforcers ◦ I yell and others look at me ◦ I fight and others listen to me ◦ I wander and people talk to me ◦ I hit in order to get toys from other kids. Escape/Avoid Aversives ◦ I cry when work gets hard and someone will help me ◦ I throw a book during math class and the teacher will remove me from class ◦ I stand out of the way during PE and the other game participants will avoid throwing me the ball. Examples of Function in School

33 UNDERSTANDING FUNCTION: WHY? WHAT IS THE PAYOFF? Use information about the routine, antecedent, behavior, & consequence to determine that the function of the behavior is either to: -Get or Avoid something in the environment Routine: During ________________ Antecedent/Trigger: When _________ Behavior: Student does _________ Consequence/OutCome: and as a result… __________ Therefore, the function of the behavior is to: get/avoid ____________

34 Setting Events Events that change the likelihood of a behavior by momentarily altering the value of the maintaining consequence. Last item to define Important in about 20-30% of situations When important, they are often very important.

35 Behavioral Function Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior What Happened

36 Example: When given math worksheets & other assignments, Caesar does not do his work, uses profanity, & disrupts lessons, especially, when he has worked alone for 30 minutes without peer contact. His work does not get completed, & he avoids teachers requests.

37 Escape difficult work Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Worked alone for 30 minutes Math worksheet assignment Noncompliance & use of profanity Sent to office

38 “Alba” During recess Alba will steal equipment, and push to the front of lines when not actively included in a game (especially with “wall ball,” and “4 square”). This pattern is most likely when Alba has been working alone previous class period. Her behavior appears to be maintained by accessing peer attention.

39 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis Lack of peer contact for 30 minutes. Not part of game at recess Steal ball, Push to the front of the line. Peer attention

40 WHAT IS WRONG WITH / MISSING FROM THIS SUMMARY STATEMENT? Setting eventAntecedent Behavior Consequence Routine: _____________ Sarah forgets to take medication Walking around room, talking with peers Attention from Peers Function: Adult Attention and Escape from Tasks Sarah often leaves her seat without permission, walks around the room and talks with peers. Sarah’s peers laugh and talk with her. This behavior is more likely if she has forgotten to take her medication before school. The function of Sarah’s behavior is to gain access to teacher attention and to escape tasks.

41 Video Examples Example A Example B Example C Problem Behavior Routine Antecedent Stimulus (Trigger) Maintaining Reinforcer Note: Not enough info for Setting Event Self-in Playgrd AcademRayHigh Sch Tracy

42 One Tool for FBA Interviews FACTS ◦ Gathering data to build an hypothesis statement. ◦ Interview the person(s) who knows the student best. ◦ min interview ◦ Use the interview for “basic questions” and “follow up questions”  Follow up to test and clarify initial responses

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44 Application (alone or in group) Using YOUR target person Complete the FACTS ◦ Description of behavior ◦ Where/when behavior is most and least likely ◦ Presumed maintaining consequence/function ◦ Hypothesis statement ◦ Degree of confidence Define when/where you would observe to validate your hypothesis Share with your group

45 Validating a FACTS summary Direct observation in the context most associated with problem behavior. Observe the problem behavior at least 5 times.  Use ABC chart, FAOI, simple journal Assess:  Is problem behavior as described?  Is context as hypothesized (setting event, antecedent stimulus)  Is maintaining reinforcer provided 67% of events?

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47 Comments: (if nothing happened in period, write initials)

48 Comments: (if nothing happened in period, write initials) 9-10 hit , reprimand 2, ,3 10/15 Michelle

49 Using Summary Statements to build Competing Behavior Model List FBA summary statement Add “Desired Behavior” and maintaining consequence Add “Alternative Behavior”  Socially appropriate  Functionally equivalent (same function as prob beh)  Efficient

50 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Desired Replacement Behavior Typical Consequences Problem Behavior Acceptable Replacement Behavior

51 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Desired Replacement Behavior Typical Consequences Problem Behavior Acceptable Replacement Behavior Profanity, Hit Teacher Teacher request to do hard task Peer Conflict Avoid, escape task Perform Task Ask for Help, Ask for Break Teacher praise and more work

52 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Desired Replacement Behavior Typical Consequences Problem Behavior Acceptable Replacement Behavior Use your target person… build the competing behavior model and share with others at your table.

53 Summary Functional behavioral assessment defined ◦ Behavior ◦ Routine/ Antecedent Stimulus ◦ Maintaining Consequence ◦ Setting Event One approach for conducting brief functional behavioral assessment (FACTS) Development of hypothesis statement.

54 Next Steps Using FBA information to guide behavior support planning. Using function-based support logic to guide design of school behavior support systems/ district behavior support systems.


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