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The Age of Revolutions in the Atlantic World WOH4234 1 Francisco de Goya, The Third of May 1808 (1814)

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Revolutions in the Atlantic World WOH4234 1 Francisco de Goya, The Third of May 1808 (1814)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of Revolutions in the Atlantic World WOH4234 1 Francisco de Goya, The Third of May 1808 (1814)

2 Learning Objectives What was the Age of Revolutions? How did imperial infrastructures and wars prepare for the Age of Revolutions? How did Europe react to colonial revolution? How did colonial revolution spread to Europe? How did European revolution impact colonies? What were the lasting results of revolutions? 2

3 An Age of Revolutions What is the Age of Revolutions? A worldwide series of revolutions, 1750-1850 –American Revolution, 1776-1783 –French Revolution, 1789-1799 –Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804 –Napoleonic Europe, 1799-1815 –Latin-American Revolutions, 1808-1833 –Communist Manifesto & Revolutions of 1848 3

4 An Age of Revolutions Why an Age of Revolutions? The revolutions that occurred in the Atlantic world, 1750-1850, were not just coincidental, but shared common themes, causes and effects. Thinking about this era as an Age of Revolutions helps historians explore what connects these revolutions, as well as what makes each revolution a unique historical event. 4

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7 Sparks of Conflict Metropoles spend to defend colonial interests Metropoles maximize profits to offset expense Colonies consolidate, organize for self-defense Colonies bartered during peace process 7

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12 12 1808 Napoleon forces Bourbons to abdicate Napoleon appoints brother Joseph as king People reject new king and elect Juntas

13 13 1809 Supreme Junta forms in Spain Most colonies send representatives Others rebel due to lack of representation New Spain Junta effort fails

14 14 1810 French armies victorious in Spain Supreme Junta dissolves under pressure Colonies begin to form new Juntas

15 15 1811 First Republic of Venezuela becomes first colony to declare independence Declaration states colonies gained right to self-rule after Bayonne abdications

16 16 1812 Cádiz Cortes produces first Spanish Constitution Civil war in Venezuela French invade Russia Britain and America begin War of 1812

17 17 1813 Paraguay and Mexico declare independence Simón Bolívar begins restoration of Venezuela Allies gain the upper hand in the Peninsular War

18 18 1814 Allies defeat Napoleon and restore Ferdinand VII Ferdinand repeals Constitution of 1812 Reconquista: Royalists gain upper hand in colonies

19 19 1815 Royalist forces continue advances Spain sends 10,000 soldiers and 60 ships Napoleon returns from exile for the Hundred Days Napoleon defeated at Waterloo

20 20 1816 Civil wars continue Royalist forces reach Texas United Provinces of the Río de la Plata consolidate power in South America

21 21 1817 Height of royalist Reconquista José de San Martín invades Chile from the United Provinces

22 22 1818 Chile declares independence

23 23 1819 Fighting continues Spain cedes Florida to United States United States renounces claims to Texas Spain organizes expedition but fails to send it to America

24 24 1820 Liberals force Ferdinand to restore constitution United Provinces begin invasion of Peru

25 25 1821 Restoration of Constitution allows self-rule in Americas Royalist leader in Mexico joins guerrillas, establishes Mexican Empire loyal to king Bolívar unites Gran Columbia

26 26 1822 Mexico elects king Agustín de Iturbide Dominican Republic declares independence United States recognizes Chile, United Provinces, Peru, Gran Columbia, and Mexico

27 27 1823 Iturbide loses support, restores Constituent Congress, abdicates and flees Britain recognizes United Provinces but contests claims to Falkland Islands

28 28 1824 French invade Spain to restore monarchy Bolívar defeats Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho

29 29 1825 Last major Spanish force surrenders in Upper Peru Britain recognizes Mexico and Gran Columbia Spain retains control of Cuba and Puerto Rico until 1898

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33 Key Terms Age of Revolutions Eurocentrism Creolism Self-rule, self-government Virtual Representation Independence Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Constitution(alism) Democracy Conscription Secularization Revolution Cortes Junta Libertadores 33

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