Presentation on theme: "European nations had established colonies in Latin America Colonies began to rebel in the early 1800’s."— Presentation transcript:
European nations had established colonies in Latin America Colonies began to rebel in the early 1800’s
Enlightenment Ideas Success of American and French Revolutions Nationalism Independence movements In Latin America Independence movements In Latin America Haiti South America Toussaint L’Ouverture Simon Bolivar Jose de San Martin Mexico Miguel Hidalgo Miguel Hidalgo
Educated Creoles read works of Enlightenment writers – Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau Success of American Revolution showed foreign rule could be overthrown Inspired by ideas of the French Revolution
Nationalism? – Feeling of pride or devotion to one's nation Nationalism often develops when a group is under control of foreign nation
French colony became the first Latin American colony to rebel Had large sugar plantations worked by African slaves Mulattoes had few rights
lead a successful revolt against French control of Haiti – Self educated, former slave – familiar with enlightenment ideas – Capable military leader Haitian slaves won their freedom in 1798
Napoleon had sent French troops to retake Haiti – French attempts to retake Haiti failed – Toussaint was captured and sent back to France – Died in a prison in the Alps Haiti becomes first independent Latin American nation – Jan 1804 – Became a republic in 1820 Inspired other Latin American colonies to rebel
What role did Toussaint L’ Overture in encouraging revolutions in Latin America?
Mexican priest Began a 11 year revolution against Spanish rule in Mexico in 1810 – Hidalgo defeated in 1811 – Jose Morelos and others continue the fight – Mexico gains independence in 1821 “My friends and countrymen neither the king nor tributes exist for us any longer. We have borne this shameful tax, which only suits slaves, for three centuries as a sign of tyranny and servitude: [a] terrible stain which we shall know how to wash away with our efforts. The moment of our freedom has arrived, the hour of our liberty has struck; and if you recognized its great value, you will help me defend it from the ambitious grasp of the tyrants.
Napoleon conquered Spain and made his brother King (1808) Creoles in Latin American colonies refused to support non-Spanish ruler – Enlightenment idea? Consent of the Governed- John Locke – Revolutions broke out in several Spanish colonies in Latin America (1810)
Educated creole Inspired by enlightenment and American and French Revolutions Led independence movements against Spanish rule in South America – Nicknamed the “liberator”
Led military campaign that won independence for: – Venezuela – Columbia – Ecuador – Peru – Bolivia
Joined forces with Bolivar Defeated Spanish in Argentina and Chile
Bolivar was unsuccessful in creating a united Latin American state – Gran Columbia Former Spanish colonies divided into separate independent states
Why did revolutionary leaders in Latin America feel that they were justified in rebelling against foreign rule?