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Nationalist Revolution Sweeps the West

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalist Revolution Sweeps the West"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalist Revolution Sweeps the West
Chapter 8

2 Latin Americans Win Independence
Chapter 8.1 Latin Americans Win Independence

3 Latin American Unique qualities
Unlike North America, Latin America did not have any unification. Partly because of geography Andes Mountains and Amazon Jungle. Five separate movements which were all related to the French Revolution

4 On the eve of independence . . .
Demographically, Latin America was a multiracial society (much different from Europe). Spain and Portugal controlled ¾’s of the Western Hemisphere, but only a small number of Iberians settled there –the Peninsulares. Together, Peninsulares and Creoles compromised only 2 % of the population and owned nearly all the mines, ranches, plantations, and (the very few) manufacturing establishments.

5 Colonial Society Divided
Race and Class System Latin America has social classes that determine job and authority Peninsulares – Born in Spain, the head the colonial government , society

6 An example of pintura de castas, that classified people by their ancestry.

7 A representation of Zambos in "Pintura de Castas" during the Latin American colonial period. "De negro e india, sale lobo" (Of a black and an Amerindian, produces a Lobo). Lobo is a Mexican synonym for "Zambo." Note the discarded shackles in the background near the timbers, it represents the Zambo's freedom from slavery thanks to his Amerindian ancestry.

8 Creoles – American born Spaniards who can become army officers
Mestizos have both European and Native ancestry

9 Mulattos – have both European and African ancestry Slaves,
Indians at the bottom of security

10 Saint Domingue/Haiti Creoles wanted independence from France during French Revolution Mulatto planters wanted equality with Creoles

11 Revolution in the Americas
Haiti is first Latin American territory to gain freedom from colonial master Slave revolt in 1791 led by Toussaint L’Ouverture

12 May 6, 1794 Slaves Revolt Toussaint L’Ouverture understood the place of Saint Domingue in global trading networks They would have to maintain plantation system 1/3 planters 1/3 workers 1/3 state Educate everyone Military Spending Send People back to Africa

13 Toussaint and Haiti Toussaint is arrested by Napoleon’s soldiers and later he dies in France But, slaves win and Haiti is independent in 1804. Jacques Desallines divides property, destroys plantations and makes himself dictator

14 Santo Domingue declares independence in 1803 and is renamed Haiti
First black colony to win independence

15 Creoles Lead Independence
Inspired by the enlightenment, Latin American revolutionaries fight for independence

16 Other Latin American Movements
Creoles are important and see themselves different from the Peninsulares. After independence, United States wanted to trade with Latin America Spanish were opposed to US trading with Latin America Terror Scares People and the Haitian Revolution really scared people Everything changes in 1807 when France invades Iberian Peninsula

17 Movements from North (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama)
Simon Bolivar In 1811 Venezuela Independent Earthquake of March 26, 1812 In 1813 Bolivar becomes dictator of Venezuela: Abolishes Indian tribute and other special privileges But, refuses to free slaves, made Catholicism state religion, limited full citizenship to those with property : Spanish regain Spain- allowed them to reconquer Venezuela In 1816 with Haitian and English support: Bolivar regains Venezuela after agreeing to free slaves

18 Simon Bolivar – Wealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolution
Jose de San Martin – leader of Argentinean revolutionary forces

19 Bolivar – Venezuela declares independence in 1811, Bolivar wins war by 1821
San Martin – Argentina independence in 1816, San Martin helps free Chile

20 South--Argentina In 1807—Britain tried to get control and the Spanish caved but Argentinians fought them In 1810 launches independence movement. Paraguay’s independence movement is successful

21 South (continued) 1813 The National Assembly ended Encomienda, Titles of Nobility, and the Inquisition 1816 Jose San Martin launches another independence movement to acquire Chile. 1817 the Army of the Andes June 1821, he conquered Peru

22 South continued July 26-27, 1822 San Martin joins Bolivar
San Martin retires Bolivar becomes military dictator December 9, 1822

23 Bolivar’s and San Martin’s forces drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824

24 Mexico Priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla— September 16, 1810.
Hidalgo is captured and killed in 1811

25 Mexican Independence Padre Miguel Hidalgo – Priest who launches Mexican revolt in 1810 leads 80,000 Indian and mestizo followers on Mexico City

26 Mexico Priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla— September 16, 1810.
Hidalgo is captured and killed in 1811

27 Jose Maria Morelos Proclaimed independence in 1813
Institutes social and fiscal reforms Wanted land reform and the breakup of haciendas

28 Agusti’n de Iturbide Agustin de Iturbide defeated Morelos.
Morelos was executed December 22, 1815

29 Jose Maria Morelos – leads revolt after Hidalgo’s defeat, but loses
Mexican creoles react, declare Mexico independent in 1821, Central America breaks away from Mexico in 1823

30 Brazil’s Royal Liberator
Bloodless Revolution – Napoleon invades Portugal causing royal family to move to Brazil in 1807 Portuguese court returns to Portugal after Napoleons defeat in 1815

31 Portuguese Prince Dom Pedro stays behind in Brazil
Accepts Brazillians’ request to rule their new country Official declaration of independence in September of 1822

32 By 1830, nearly all Latin American regions win independence

33 Who gained and who lost? Creole elites Slaves Military
Millions of miners and agricultural workers Latin American Economy Latin American Democracy Stability

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