Presentation on theme: "AP World History Chapter 25"— Presentation transcript:
1 AP World History Chapter 25 The Consolidation of Latin America
2 Causes of Political Change American RevolutionModelFrench RevolutionIdeologyToo radicalToussaint L'Overture1791 slave revoltRepublic of Haiti, 1804French invasion of Spain
3 Spanish-American Independence Struggles MexicoMiguel de Hidalgo1810 Rebellion, alliance with Indians and mestizosAugustín de IturbideEnded the Mexican War of Independence1824, collapse of new state
4 1825, all Spanish colonies independent Simon BolívarCreole, Visionary, Revolutionary, & LiberatorIndependence movement, 1810, victoriesGrand ColumbiaVenezuela, Colombia, Ecuador1830, splitJosé de San MartínLiberator of Spanish South America.Buenos Aires, Peru, Chili, Argentina
5 Brazilian Independence 1807, French invasion of PortugalRoyal family, elite, to BrazilRio de Janeiro, capitalKing João VI of PortugalIn Brazil until 1820Pedro left in Brazil as regent1822, Pedro declares Brazil independentPedro I
6 Enlightenment idealsRole of Catholic church?EqualitySlaveryIndians, mestizosFranchisement
7 Latin American Economies and World Markets, 1820-1870 Britain, U.S. support independencein exchange for economic powerDependency on foreign consumersMid-Century StagnationAfter 1850European market creates demandChurch, conservatives slow changeLandowners, peasants ally in oppositionThe Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2, It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention.
8 Mexico: Instability and Foreign Intervention 1824, Mexican ConstitutionConservative centralists v. liberal federalistsReforms attempted, 1830sOpposed by Antonio López de Santa Anna ,caudilloWar with U.S. Benito JuárezZapotec IndianLiberal revolt,1854New constitution, 1857Privileges of army and church diminishedLands sold to individualsFrench in to assist conservativesMaximilian von Habsburg1867, French withdrawMaximilian executedJuárez in office to 1872
9 Argentina: The Port and the Nation United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, 1816Liberals v. federalistsJuan Manuel de Rosas, 1831FederalistOverthrown, 1852Reunification,Domingo F. Sarmiento“The King can be compared with a father, and reciprocally a father can be compared with the King, and then set the duties of the monarch by those of the parental authorithy. Love, govern, reward and punish is what a King and a father must do. In the end, there's nothing less legitimate than anarchy, which removes property and security from the people, as force becomes then the only right.”While president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought including education for children and women and democracy for Latin America.
10 The Brazilian Empire Pedro I 1824, liberal constitution Abdicates, 1831Pedro IIRegency,Economic prosperityCoffee exportSlavery intensifiedInfrastructure improvedAbolitionAchieved, 1888Republican PartyFormed, 1871Coup, 1889Republic founded
11 Mexico and Argentina: Examples of Economic Transformation Porfirio Díaz1876, presidentForeign capital used for infrastructureRevolt suppressed, Civil WarElectoral reformArgentinaMeat exportsImmigrationDistinct culture1890sSocialist party formsStrikes from 1910Radical PartyMiddle class1916, in power
12 Uncle Sam Goes South Spanish-American War, 1898 Cuba American investment Puerto Rico annexedColombiaU.S. backs revolution