Presentation on theme: "UNAIDS – Children and HIV in Jamaica and the Caribbean region"— Presentation transcript:
1UNAIDS – Children and HIV in Jamaica and the Caribbean region Caribbean Child Development CentreWorkshop on Children and HIV/AIDSTuesday, 14 February 2006JOHANNES WAGNERProgramme OfficerUNAIDS Office Jamaica
2Global EpidemiologyFacts and Figures(including children)
3Global summary of the HIV and AIDS epidemic, December 2005 Number of people living with HIV in 2005 Total 40.3 million (36.7 – 45.3 million) Adults 38.0 million (34.5 – 42.6 million) Women 17.5 million (16.2 – 19.3 million) Children under 15 years 2.3 million (2.1 – 2.8 million)People newly infected with HIV in Total 4.9 million (4.3 – 6.6 million) Adults 4.2 million (3.6 – 5.8 million) Children under 15 years ( – )AIDS deaths in 2005 Total 3.1 million (2.8 – 3.6 million) Adults 2.6 million (2.3 – 2.9 million) Children under 15 years ( – )The ranges around the estimates in this table define the boundaries within which the actual numbers lie, based on the best available information.
4Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV as of end 2005 Western & Central Europe[ – ]Eastern Europe & Central Asia1.6 million[ – 2.3 million]North America1.2 million[ – 1.8 million]East Asia[ – 1.4 million]North Africa & Middle East[ – 1.4 million]Caribbean[ – ]South & South-East Asia7.4 million[4.5 – 11.0 million]Sub-Saharan Africa25.8 million[23.8 – 28.9 million]Latin America1.8 million[1.4 – 2.4 million]Oceania74 000[ – ]Total: 40.3 (36.7 – 45.3) million* The proportion of adults [15 to 49 years of age] living with HIV in 2005, using 2005 population numbersThe ranges around the estimates in this table define the boundaries within which the actual numbers lie, based on the best available information.
5About 14 000 new HIV infections a day in 2005 More than 95% are in low and middle income countriesAlmost 2000 are in children under 15 years of ageAbout are in persons aged 15 to 49 years,of whom:- almost 50% are women- about 50% are 15–24 year olds
7Children (<15 years) estimated to be living with HIV as of end 2005 Eastern Europe& Central Asia7 800[5 300 – ]Western & Central Europe5 300[4 200 – 6 800]North America9 000[4 600 – ]East Asia5 000[1 900 – ]North Africa & Middle East37 000[ – ]Caribbean17 000[9 900 – ]South& South-East Asia[ – ]Sub-Saharan Africa2.1 million[1.8 – 2.5 million]Latin America50 000[ – ]Oceania3 300[ ]Total: 2.3 (2.1 – 2.8) million
8Estimated deaths in children (<15 years) from AIDS during 2005 Eastern Europe& Central Asia2 100[1 400 – 3 600]Western & Central Europe< 100[< 200]North America< 100[< 200]East Asia1 300[470 – 3 600]North Africa & Middle East11 000[4 100 – ]Caribbean3 600[1 800 – 7 900]South& South-East Asia31 000[ – ]Sub-Saharan Africa[ – ]Latin America3 200[2 400 – 6 600]Oceania700[180 – 3 100]Total: ( – )
9Western & Central Europe Estimated number of children (<15 years) newly infected with HIV during 2005Western & Central Europe200[< 400]Eastern Europe& Central Asia3 700[2 600 – 6 400]North America500[<1 000]East Asia2 300[840 – 6 300]North Africa & Middle East8 900[2 600 – ]Caribbean3 800[2 000 – 8 000]South& South-East Asia44 000[ – ]Sub-Saharan Africa[ – ]Latin America7 700[5 600 – ]Oceania1 100[230 – 4 800]Total: ( – )
10End-2005 global HIV and AIDS estimates Children (<15 years) Children living with HIV million [2.1 – 2.8 million]New HIV infections in [ – ]Deaths due to AIDS in [ – ]
11Vulnerability to HIV Infection Children HIV and AIDSVulnerability to HIV Infection
12Vulnerability to HIV Infection Economic, social, cultural and legal factors;Cause and effect are interrelated;A single effect or the totality of effects increases vulnerability to HIV.
13Vulnerability to HIV Infection Children becomeCare GiverIllnessEmotional distressDeaths of parentsEconomic ProblemsIssues of Propertyand InheritanceChildren without adequate careSchool drop outChild traffickingExploitative Child LaborPoor housingViolencePoor NutritionSexual ExploitationStigma and DiscriminationReduced Accessto Health ServicesVulnerability to HIV Infection
14Child Labour in the Caribbean Vulnerability to HIVChild Labour in the Caribbean
15Child LabourStudy commissioned by ILO Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean, (ILO a UNAIDS Co- Sponsor agency) in 2005.Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago
16Child LabourThe study reflects a broad comparative approach and completes the six companion studies on the individual countries.Identify apparent gaps and inconsistencies in laws relating to child labour.Provide a guide for legislative reform.
17Child LabourDefinition: Both paid and unpaid work and activities that are mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children. It is work that deprives them of opportunities for schooling or that requires them to assume the multiple burdens of schooling and work at home and in other workplaces and work that enslaves them and separates them from their family.
18Child Labour - Conlusions The commissioned study concluded that:There are constitutional provisions in all countries surveyed which recognize and declare certain fundamental rights and freedoms.In addition, some countries have further provisions in their criminal acts that outlaw worst forms of child labour. Gaps could be remedied by a process of amendments.
19Child Labour - Conclusions With exceptions of the Bahamas, none of the countries has the requisite legislative framework dealing with light work, defined as:Not likely to be harmful to the health or development of young persons and not such as to prejudice their attendance at school, their participation in vocational orientation or training programmes approved by the competent authority or their capacity to benefit from the instruction received.
20Child Labour – Recommended Reform Caribbean countries should ensure that a policy on child labour is placed in the context of national social and economic development policies that address the larger issues of poverty, education, family, life and youth development.Establish a comprehensive Policy framework to guide law reform on the issue of child labour.
21Child Labour – Recommended Reform Within the Caribbean Region the law on minimum age for admission to employment varies widely (12-16 years).Request: Set minimum age - not less than 15 years, consistent with the compulsory age for completion of schooling and human development standard of the country.
22Child Labour – Recommended Reform No existing specific legislation on child trafficking in the surveyed countriesRequest: Introduction of comprehensive legislation on the sale and trafficking of children.
23Child Labour Beyond legal action other actions have to be undertaken by the Governments to create asupportive environment :PovertyPoor parentingViolence against childrenSexual abuse of childrenDeficiencies in the educational, health and legal sectors; andLack of Monitoring and Evaluation systems
24Child Rights – Legal Obligations of the States All states in the Caribbean region have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child. None has entered any reservation to reduce their obligation to protect children from all forms of violence.
25Child RightsEvery child should enjoy every right in the Convention on the Rights of the Child .The failure to protect one right of the child could be the basis to put the life of the child in jeopardy through their contracting HIV or through them facing the consequences of HIV infection.