Presentation on theme: "UNAIDS – Children and HIV in Jamaica and the Caribbean region Caribbean Child Development Centre Workshop on Children and HIV/AIDS Tuesday, 14 February."— Presentation transcript:
UNAIDS – Children and HIV in Jamaica and the Caribbean region Caribbean Child Development Centre Workshop on Children and HIV/AIDS Tuesday, 14 February 2006 JOHANNES WAGNER Programme Officer UNAIDS Office Jamaica
Global Epidemiology Facts and Figures (including children)
Global summary of the HIV and AIDS epidemic, December 2005 The ranges around the estimates in this table define the boundaries within which the actual numbers lie, based on the best available information. Number of people living with HIV in 2005Total40.3 million (36.7 – 45.3 million) Adults38.0 million (34.5 – 42.6 million) Women17.5 million (16.2 – 19.3 million) Children under 15 years2.3 million (2.1 – 2.8 million) People newly infected with HIV in 2005 Total4.9 million (4.3 – 6.6 million) Adults4.2 million (3.6 – 5.8 million) Children under 15 years ( – ) AIDS deaths in 2005Total3.1 million (2.8 – 3.6 million) Adults2.6 million (2.3 – 2.9 million) Children under 15 years ( – )
* The proportion of adults [15 to 49 years of age] living with HIV in 2005, using 2005 population numbers The ranges around the estimates in this table define the boundaries within which the actual numbers lie, based on the best available information. Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV as of end 2005 Total: 40.3 (36.7 – 45.3) million Western & Central Europe [ – ] North Africa & Middle East [ – 1.4 million] Sub-Saharan Africa 25.8 million [23.8 – 28.9 million] Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.6 million [ – 2.3 million] South & South-East Asia 7.4 million [4.5 – 11.0 million] Oceania [ – ] North America 1.2 million [ – 1.8 million] Caribbean [ – ] Latin America 1.8 million [1.4 – 2.4 million] East Asia [ – 1.4 million]
About new HIV infections a day in 2005 More than 95% are in low and middle income countries Almost 2000 are in children under 15 years of age About are in persons aged 15 to 49 years, of whom: - almost 50% are women -about 50% are 15–24 year olds
Children and HIV and AIDS Facts and Figures
Children (<15 years) estimated to be living with HIV as of end 2005 Western & Central Europe [4 200 – 6 800] North Africa & Middle East [ – ] Sub-Saharan Africa 2.1 million [1.8 – 2.5 million] Eastern Europe & Central Asia [5 300 – ] East Asia [1 900 – ] South & South-East Asia [ – ] Oceania [ ] North America [4 600 – ] Caribbean [9 900 – ] Latin America [ – ] Total: 2.3 (2.1 – 2.8) million
Estimated deaths in children (<15 years) from AIDS during 2005 Western & Central Europe < 100 [< 200] North Africa & Middle East [4 100 – ] Sub-Saharan Africa [ – ] Eastern Europe & Central Asia [1 400 – 3 600] East Asia [470 – 3 600] South & South-East Asia [ – ] Oceania700 [180 – 3 100] North America < 100 [< 200] Caribbean [1 800 – 7 900] Latin America [2 400 – 6 600] Total: ( – )
Estimated number of children (<15 years) newly infected with HIV during 2005 Western & Central Europe200 [< 400] North Africa & Middle East [2 600 – ] Sub-Saharan Africa [ – ] Eastern Europe & Central Asia [2 600 – 6 400] East Asia [840 – 6 300] South & South-East Asia [ – ] Oceania [230 – 4 800] North America500 [<1 000] Caribbean [2 000 – 8 000] Latin America [5 600 – ] Total: ( – )
Children living with HIV 2.3 million [2.1 – 2.8 million] New HIV infections in [ – ] Deaths due to AIDS in [ – ] End-2005 global HIV and AIDS estimates Children (<15 years)
Children HIV and AIDS Vulnerability to HIV Infection
Economic, social, cultural and legal factors; Cause and effect are interrelated; A single effect or the totality of effects increases vulnerability to HIV.
Vulnerability to HIV Infection HIV Infection Illness Stigma and Discrimination Children without adequate care Vulnerability to HIV Infection Reduced Access to Health Services Poor Nutrition Poor housing School drop out Economic Problems Violence Deaths of parents Emotional distress Children become Care Giver Sexual Exploitation Exploitative Child Labor Child trafficking Issues of Property and Inheritance
Vulnerability to HIV Child Labour in the Caribbean
Child Labour Study commissioned by ILO Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean, (ILO a UNAIDS Co- Sponsor agency) in Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago
Child Labour The study reflects a broad comparative approach and completes the six companion studies on the individual countries. Identify apparent gaps and inconsistencies in laws relating to child labour. Provide a guide for legislative reform.
Child Labour Definition: Both paid and unpaid work and activities that are mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children. It is work that deprives them of opportunities for schooling or that requires them to assume the multiple burdens of schooling and work at home and in other workplaces and work that enslaves them and separates them from their family.
Child Labour - Conlusions The commissioned study concluded that: There are constitutional provisions in all countries surveyed which recognize and declare certain fundamental rights and freedoms. In addition, some countries have further provisions in their criminal acts that outlaw worst forms of child labour. Gaps could be remedied by a process of amendments.
Child Labour - Conclusions With exceptions of the Bahamas, none of the countries has the requisite legislative framework dealing with light work, defined as: Not likely to be harmful to the health or development of young persons and not such as to prejudice their attendance at school, their participation in vocational orientation or training programmes approved by the competent authority or their capacity to benefit from the instruction received.
Child Labour – Recommended Reform Caribbean countries should ensure that a policy on child labour is placed in the context of national social and economic development policies that address the larger issues of poverty, education, family, life and youth development. Establish a comprehensive Policy framework to guide law reform on the issue of child labour.
Child Labour – Recommended Reform Within the Caribbean Region the law on minimum age for admission to employment varies widely (12-16 years). Request: Set minimum age - not less than 15 years, consistent with the compulsory age for completion of schooling and human development standard of the country.
Child Labour – Recommended Reform No existing specific legislation on child trafficking in the surveyed countries Request: Introduction of comprehensive legislation on the sale and trafficking of children.
Child Labour Beyond legal action other actions have to be undertaken by the Governments to create a supportive environment : Poverty Poor parenting Violence against children Sexual abuse of children Deficiencies in the educational, health and legal sectors; and Lack of Monitoring and Evaluation systems
Child Rights – Legal Obligations of the States All states in the Caribbean region have ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child. None has entered any reservation to reduce their obligation to protect children from all forms of violence.
Child Rights Every child should enjoy every right in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The failure to protect one right of the child could be the basis to put the life of the child in jeopardy through their contracting HIV or through them facing the consequences of HIV infection.