Presentation on theme: "The First Triumvirate CaesarPompeyCrassus Pompey was the outsider in this originally secret alliance, formed in 60 BCE."— Presentation transcript:
The First Triumvirate CaesarPompeyCrassus Pompey was the outsider in this originally secret alliance, formed in 60 BCE
Julius Caesar Born to a patrician family around 100 BCE Early life was a time of turmoil marriages, affairs, etc. Served in the army outside of Rome Waited for the death of Sulla before returning to Rome
The First Triumvirate Crassus used part of the Roman army to expand the Republics territory to the east, Caesar did the same to the north, and Pompey stayed in Rome
63 BCE, Caesar elected to the office of Pontifex Maximus (highest priest of the Roman state religion) 50s BCE- as part of the 1 st Triumvirate, Caesar governs Gaul Conquers Gaul by 51 BCE Ordered back to Rome, crosses Rubicon w/ army in 49 BCE
The First Triumvirate Seven years after the formation of the 1st Triumvirate, Crassus died in battle and Pompey campaigned to be Romes only consul Caesar returned to Italy in 49 BCE to challenge Pompey (Roman law forbade generals from crossing the Rubicon River with a standing army)
The First Triumvirate A civil war ensued & Caesar defeated Pompey Coin minted to pay Caesars troops
Julius Caesar in charge Caesar never married Pharaoh Cleopatra VII, the Queen of Egypt with whom he allied, although they did (probably) have a son together Caesar, who admired Alexander the Great, spent the next four years further expanding the Roman Republic
Julius Caesar in Charge 46 BCE- Dictator for 10 years 45 BCE- Dictator Perpetuus Instituted reforms and building projects Calendar Senate- 900 members Citizenship to conquered peoples (esp. Gaul)
Assassination of Caesar Roman senators, led by Brutus and Cassius, assassinated Caesar in 44 BCE (motives included jealousy, protection of the Republic, and anger about the $ spent by Caesar) Caesars friend Mark Antony, Caesars great nephew (and adopted son) Octavian, and Marcus Lepidus hunted down those involved in the assassination and then formed the 2nd Triumvirate
AssassinationMarch 15, 44 BCE Et tu, Brute?
What does Caesars death mean? End of the republic? Deification Octavian is the heir
The Second Triumvirate AntonyLepidusOctavian Formed in 43 BCE, this triumvirate also succumbed to jealousy and ambition. Why does any last hope of Republic die with the 2 nd Triumvirate?
The Second Triumvirate Antony married Octavians sister but lived and had children with Cleopatra VII (who had also had a child with Julius Caesar) Octavian raised an army and defeated Lepidus, then at Actium defeated Antony and Cleopatra, who committed dual suicide in 31 BCE
Octavian In Charge Many people consider the Battle of Actium to mark the end of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire Other people say that the Republic died under Julius Caesar Still others say that the Republic did not die until the Senate gave Octavian the title Augustus – the illustrious one – in 27 BCE
Augustus (27 BCE and beyond) 31 BCEBeginning of Pax Romana (lasted until 180 CE) Served as Pontifex Maximus (high priest) Purged the Senate to 600 members Fire and police departments Put permanent employees in the government, made army professional Public buildings and roads Rebuilt Rome (bricks to marble) Biggest external problempeople to the north Carefully chose his own successor, but did not clearly declare how others should do it in the future Why were the Romans willing to accept Augustus abandonment of Republican ideals?