Enterprise: Animal Science Unit: Livestock Breeds & Terms Factor Information needed I. Intro.A. Identifying breeds of livestock is basic knowledge of the agriculture industry. 1. Many jobs require it. II. Beef Breeds A. The common breeds of beef can be broken down by type. 1. English Breeds- came from British Isles, some of the earliest breeds brought to America
a. Angus- All black and polled. Popular for crossing. (also Red Angus) b. Hereford- Red with white face, chest, underline, switch, and possibly legs and crest. Both horned and polled breeds.
c. Shorthorn- Can be red, white, or roan 2. Continental (exotic) Breeds
a. Charolais- White to cream color with pink skin. Heavy muscled, large breed. b. Chianina- White to grey with black skin, nose, and switch. Largest breed.
c. Limousin- Red (black) which gets lighter at the points. Muscular breed. d. Simmental- Red to Yellow (black)with white patches
e. Gelbvieh- Red to tan, high milking ability. f. Maine Anjou- Dark Red or Black with white patches, large, muscular breed
3. Indian breeds a. Brahman- White to grey with large hump and floppy skin. b. Brangus- Black with hump and floppy skin. 5/8 Angus, 3/8 Brahman.
B. Common Beef terms: 1. Steer- Castrated male 2. Heifer- Young female/no offspring 3. Bull- Male of any age 4. Cow- Mature female 5. Calf- Young of either sex
III. Swine Breeds A. There are two basic types of swine- Meat and Maternal. B. Breeds can be identified by color and ears. 1. Yorkshire- White with erect ears. Known as the maternalMother Breed
2. Chester White- White with medium floppy ears, maternal. 3. American Landrace- Long White breed with long floppy ears, maternal breed.
4. Duroc- Solid red with floppy ears, meat breed. 5. Spotted Swine- Black and white patches, floppy ears, meat breed.
6. Hampshire- Black with a white belt around front shoulders, erect ears, meat breed.
7. Poland China- Black with 6 white points, floppy ears, meat breed. 8. Berkshire- Black with 6 white points, erect ears, meat breed.
C. Basic swine terminology: 1. Gilt- young female 2. Barrow- Castrated male 3. Boar- Male of any age 4. Sow- Mature female 5. Piglet- Young of either sex.
IV. Sheep Breeds A. Sheep can be divided up by wool type. B. Wool breeds 1. Columbia- all white wool breed, tall, no horns, smooth neck.
C. Meat breeds 1. Suffolk- bald black head/ legs. 2. Rambouillet- all white fine wool breed, male horns, wrinkled neck.
3. Dorset- all white meat breed with a wool cap. 2. Hampshire- black face and legs with a wool cap
D. Terminology 1. Ram- male of any age 2. Ewe- female of any age 3. Wether- castrated male 4. Lamb- young of either sex 5. Buck- slang for ram V. Dairy Breeds A. The dairy breeds include 1. Holstein- black and white spots
2. Brown Swiss- Brown to gray with black eyes and muzzle 3. Jersey- small, tan with black face
4. Guernsey- Tan with white patches 5. Ayrshire- dark red/white patches
VI. Horses A. Horses are categorized by size, most dont have a set color: 1. Medium horses a. Quarter horse- muscular, athletic breed named for its race.
b. Arabian- small endurance breed, dished face, smooth muscled
c. Paint- solid color/white patches Tobiano Overo