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Presentation on theme: "DOING THINGS RIGHT OR DOING THE RIGHT THING?&WINNING HEARTS&MINDS! Chapter 8&9."— Presentation transcript:



3 Leadership Theories Major Theories 1. Leadership Grid 2. Contingency Theory 3. Transactional Leadership 4. Transformational Leadership

4 3 Important Leadership Behaviors  Task concerns  Plans & defines work to be done.  Assigns task responsibilities.  Sets clear work standards.  Urges task completion.  Monitors performance results.  People concerns  Acts warm and supportive toward followers.  Develops social rapport with followers.  Respects the feelings of followers.  Is sensitive to followers’ needs.  Shows trust in followers. Leadership Grid

5 The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) Leadership Grid

6  Team Management: High task concern; high people concern.  Authority-obedience Management: High task concern; low people concern.  Country Club Management: High people concern; low task concern.  Impoverished Management: Low task concern; low people concern.  Middle of the road management: Non-committal for both task concern and people concern. Leadership Grid

7  Contingency theories all consider the situation  4 contingency theories: 1. Fiedler ’ s Contingency Model 2. Hersey and Blanchard ’ s Situational Leadership Model 3. Path Goal Theory 4. Vroom-Jago Leadership-Participation Model  Assumptions underlying the different models:  Fiedler: Leader ’ s style is fixed  Other ’ s: Leader ’ s style can and should be changed Contingency Theories Contingency Theory

8 Fiedler’s Contingency Model  no one best style of leadership  a leader's effectiveness is based on “leadership style” & "situational favorableness”  “Leadership Style” is fixed & can be measured  developed the ‘ least preferred co-worker ’ (LPC) scale in which the leaders are asked about the person with whom they least like to work.  Low LPC score  task-motivated leaders.  High LPC score  relationship-motivated leaders. Contingency Theory

9 Fiedler’s Contingency Model  “Situational Favorableness” depends on three factors: 1. Leader-Member Relations – level of trust and confidence that your team has in you  more trusted leader is in a more favorable situation 2. Task Structure – type of task you're doing: clear and structured, or vague and unstructured.  tasks where the team & leader have little knowledge of how to achieve them, are viewed unfavorably 3. Leader's Position Power – amount of power you have to direct the group, and provide reward or punishment.  the more power you have, the more favorable your situation Contingency Theory

10 Fiedler’s Contingency Model Contingency Theory

11 Fiedler’s Contingency Model Con’t  Diagnosing situational control:  Quality of leader-member relations (good or poor).  Degree of task structure (high or low).  Amount of position power (strong or weak).  Task oriented leaders are most successful in:  Very favorable (high control) situations.  Very unfavorable (low control) situations.  Relationship-oriented leaders are most successful in:  Situations of moderate control. Contingency Theory

12 Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership model  Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers to perform in a given situation.  Readiness — how able, willing and confident followers are in performing tasks. Contingency Theory

13 Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Con’t Contingency Theory

14 Delegating o Allowing group to take responsibility for task decisions o Low-task, low-relationship style. Participating o Ideas are shared o Low-task, high-relationship style. Contingency Theory Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership model

15 Contingency Theory Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership model Selling o Explain task directions in a supportive way o High-task, high-relationship style. Telling o giving specific task directions & closely supervising o High-task, low-relationship style.

16 House’s Path-Goal leadership theory  Leader must help followers attain goals and reduce roadblocks to success  Leadership styles for dealing with path-goal relationships:  Directive leadership.  Supportive leadership.  Achievement-oriented leadership.  Participative leadership. Contingency Theory

17 Directive leadership. o Communicate expectations. o Give directions. o Schedule work. o Maintain performance standards. o Clarify leader’ s role. Supportive leadership. o Make work pleasant. o Treat group members as equals. o Be friendly and approachable. o Show concern for subordinates’ well-being. Contingency Theory House’s Path-Goal leadership theory Achievement-oriented leadership. o Set challenging goals. o Expect high performance levels. o Emphasize continuous improvement. o Display confidence in meeting high standards. Participative leadership. o Involve subordinates in decision making. o Consult with subordinates. o Ask for subordinates’ suggestions. o Use subordinates’ suggestions.

18 House’s Path-Goal leadership theory Contingency Theory

19 When to use House’s leadership styles:  Use directive leadership when job assignments are ambiguous.  Use supportive leadership when worker self- confidence is low.  Use participative leadership when performance incentives are poor.  Use achievement-oriented leadership when task challenge is insufficient. Contingency Theory House’s Path-Goal leadership theory

20 Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation  Helps leaders choose the method of decision making that best fits the nature of the problem situation. Contingency Theory

21  A leader should use authority-oriented decision methods when …  The leader has greater expertise to solve a problem.  The leader is confident and capable of acting alone.  Others are likely to accept and implement the decision.  Little or no time is available for discussion. Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation Contingency Theory

22  A leader should use group-oriented and participative decision methods when …  The leader lacks sufficient information to solve a problem by himself/herself.  The problem is unclear and help is needed to clarify the situation.  Acceptance of the decision and commitment by others is necessary for implementation.  Adequate time is available for true participation. Contingency Theory Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation

23 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Which leadership theory (ies) say(s) that a leader cannot be trained? Learning Check: Leadership Fielder ’ s Contingency Theory is the only one which says a leader ’ s style is fixed and cannot be trained. But, what do all of the theories above have in common? Leadership Grid Fiedler ’ s Contingency Theory Path Goal Theory Transformational All of the above

24 Transactional  leaders give employees something in return for their compliance & acceptance of authority (i.e. incentives like pay increases)  focus on the management of the organisation, procedures, efficiency, & contracts Transactional Pay employees to fly economy class http://www.mindflas workplace-incentives- how-are-companies- keeping-their-talent/

25  leader motivates by getting employees to identify with the vision. Transformational  Superleaders or Charismatic Leaders - develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire others in extraordinary ways.  Traits of charismatic leaders: vision, charisma, symbolism, empowerment, intellectual stimulation, integrity


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