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Keywords in TEFL Dr. Csilla Szabó NYME-SEK, FIKI, Department of English Studies.

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Presentation on theme: "Keywords in TEFL Dr. Csilla Szabó NYME-SEK, FIKI, Department of English Studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Keywords in TEFL Dr. Csilla Szabó NYME-SEK, FIKI, Department of English Studies

2 Approaches vs. methods Approach: A theory about the nature of language and language learning 1. Structural view  ALM, TPR. Silent Way 2. Functional view  semantic and comm. dimension 3. Interactional view  lg is seen as a vehicle for social transaction bw individuals

3 method designprocedure approach

4 ELT methods 1. GTM (Grammar Translation Method) Deductive, L1 is used for explanation Literature-centred (TL literary texts are used – authentic!) Central activity: translation Memorisation of vocabulary lists Errors are not tolerated

5 What can we use from GTM? Memorisation of words can be useful Translation (should not be excluded from the classroom) – integrated skills Reading authentic literature is always a plus Coursebooks available: Budai László, Angol (TK), Tanuljunk Nyelveket

6 ELT methods 2. Direct Method (DM) In response to GTM Inductive learning Lg is for speaking – focus on oral skills L1 is not allowed Not about lg., the lg. itself SS’s self correction Pictures, sample sentences, dialogues Vocab over grammar Learning occurs naturally

7 What shall we keep from DM? Inductive approach More vocab than grammar Lg is for communication – focus on oral skills Coursebook available: ?

8 ELT methods 3. The Audio-lingual Method Background: behaviourism / habit formation Stimulus-response-reinforcement Learning is inductive. Habit formation by means of repetitions and other mechanical drills. Natural order of skills. 1. Listening, 2. Speaking, 3. Reading, 4. Writing. Culture is presented in dialogues (SS memorise them) Meaning directly, no explicit rules Focus on pronunciation (oral skills + writing) L1 is not allowed – may lead to wrong habits in L2

9 What shall we keep from ALM? Drills – necessary in the phase of accurate reproduction (meaningful, not mechanical!) Focus on pronunciation (minimal pairs) Lots of listening Coursebooks: Streamline, Strategies

10 Methods: the Humanistic tradition I. 1.Silent Way (C. Gattegno) Theoretical background: cognitive psychology Lg = rule formation (not habit!) – inductive learning T = facilitator, silent while teaching! SS actively explore the lg. Focus on vocab by visual aids, charts, colour rods No formal testing Errors are natural – SS self-correct Cooperation and enjoyable classroom atmposhere

11 What shall we keep from Silent Way? Discovery techniques Great for certain areas Word charts to recycle vocabulary Cooperation and relaxed atmosphere No coursebooks available

12 Methods: the Humanistic tradition I. 2. Suggestopedia (G. Lozanov) No psychological barriers SS feelings are respected Infantilisation (T = parent) Varying intonation to avoid boredom Materials presented with music and rhythm Physical features of classrom (cosy) Pseudo-passive learning attitude Minimal grammar, large vocabulary

13 What shall we keep from Suggestopedia? Respect SS’ feelings Focus on rhythm and intonation Again, OK a few times a year Less focus on grammar (see: English as lingua franca) Relaxa-books, „villám angol”

14 Methods: the Humanistic tradition III: 3. CLL: Community Language Learning True holistic/ „whole person” /non-defensive S A R D Security Attention & Aggression Retention & Reflection Discrimination

15 Self-reflection / recorded performance Focus on culture T = councellor L1 is used to clarify meaning Communication is the major goal/ but no pressure on SS, their feelings are central Involve SS

16 What shall we keep from CLL? Reflective listening = students need quiet reflection time in order to learn – it’s a good idea to record SS and let them analyse their own performance

17 Total Physical Response (TPR) Innate Bio-program: - Listening first, “a blue- print” of lg + developnment of "a cognitive map" of the lg during listening process. B) Brain Lateralisation: left and right hemisphere have different learning functions.With both hemispheres activated, learning is more effective. C) Stress (an affective filter): The lower the stress is, the greater the learning

18 What shall we keep from TPR? Learning via action – imperatives, focus on non-verbal elements of comm. More reliance on objects and visuals Stress-free environment E.g. English Party /

19 CA/CLT Communicative Approach:  The goal of language teaching is to develop "communicative competence"  Form-meaning-function together – focus on meaning  Authentic materials  Errors are tolerated  Focus on motivation

20 Principles of CLT Meaning is paramount Contextualisation Effective communication Judicious use of L1 Drilling at the initial phase Integrating all 4 skills + translation Understandable pronunciation High fluency + moderate accuracy

21 Techniques to achieve communicative competence: in the seminars


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