TESL Methodology: An Overview Spring 2001. TESL Methodology: Values 1. For teachers to reflect that can aid teaching and to think what underlies their.
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TESL Methodology: Values 1. For teachers to reflect that can aid teaching and to think what underlies their actions. 2. Methods offer teachers alternatives to what they currently think and do. 3. Teachers join a community practice with a knowledge of methods. 4. Methods keep teachers ’ teaching alive- helps prevent it from becoming stale and routinized.
TESL Methodology: Values(continue … ) 5. A knowledge of methods helps expand a teacher ’ s repertoire of techniques. 6. Methods serve as models of the integration of theory (principles) and practice (techniques). 7. Study of methods can encourage continuing education in the lifelong process of learning to teach.
Theories influencing TESL methods Linguistics Applied Linguistics Psychology Biology Neurology Ethnography Computer Science Sociology Social Works Anthropology Education
Glossary of Terms Approach: assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of language & language learning Method: an umbrella term for specification and interrelation of theory and practice Technique: specific activity manifested in the classroom that are consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach Design: relationship of theories to classroom materials and activities Procedure: techniques and practice derived from one ’ s approach and design
Methodology Overview Traditional : Grammar Translation Direct Method Audiolingual Method Innovative: Community language teaching Community language teaching Suggestopedia Silent Way Total Physical Responses Total Physical Responses Communicative language teaching Communicative language teaching
Grammar Translation Time: 19c. Focus: grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary, translation of texts and doing written exercises Weakness: can ’ t speak and understand even after memorizing the entire grammar book
Direct Method Time & Theory: end of 19c., Charles Berlitz in Germany, compare SLA to 1 st language acquisition Focus: only target language, oral communication Weakness: not take well in public education due to budget limit, lack of NS teachers and practices
Audiolingual Method Time & Theory: 1940s~1950s, Structrual linguistics and Behavioristic psychologiest, conditioning and habit formation-stimulus, responses, reinforcement Focus: target-like pronunciation and pattern drills Weakness: ultimate failure to teach long- term communicative proficiency
Community Language Teaching Time & Theory: Charles Curran (1972), Chomskyan deep structure and psychologist ’ affective and interpersonal nature Focus: reduce affective factor, translation, non-directive Weakness: translation isn ’ t easy, reliance on an inductive strategy of learning
Suggestopedia Time & Theory: Bulgarian psychologist-Georgi Lozanov Focus: superlearning needs to stimulate alpha brain waves by making learners relaxed Weakness: environment hard to get and relying on memorization
Silent Way Time & Theory: Caleb Gattegno (1972) Focus: “ Discovery Learning ” -learners construct conceptual hierarchy on their own, problem-solving Weakness: Teachers-too distant to encourage a communicative atmosphere, learners-too independent
Total Physical Responses Time & Theory: James Asher (1977), 1 st language acquisition + physical responses Focus: giving commands (no oral responses) Weakness: more applicable to beginning learners
Communicative Language Teaching Learn to communicate through interaction in the target language Authentic text Focus on learning process Use learner ’ s own personal experience Try to link what ’ s been learned in the classroom to the outside
Questions to consider in reviewing each teaching method: 1. What are the goals of teachers who use the method? 2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students? 3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process? 4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction? 5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
Questions to consider in reviewing each teaching method: (continue … ) 6. How is the language reviewed? 7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized? 8. What is the role of the students/ native language? 9 How is evaluation accomplished? 10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?