4Classical Era (Greek and Latin)— pre printing press focus on listening and speakingno textbooks-some handwritten texts and dictionaries
5Rise of European Vernaculars Gutenberg- invented printing press-1440J. Belot (l580) Earliest known ESL textbook; published in England for Protestant refugees.Comenius- one of the first widely acknowledged teacher-practitioners. (published )
6GRAMMAR TRANSLATION (Karl Ploetz, 1819-1881) Instruction and explanation in L1Little use of target languageFocus on parsing parts of speech, inflectionsTranslate from L1 to L2 (and vice versa)Result: inability to use the L2(Beginning of pedagogical tension: analysis vs. use)
7THE DIRECT METHOD F. Gouin-began to publish in l880 No use of L1 allowed (teacher must be proficient)Use of actions, pictures to give meaning to dialogues and anecdotesGrammar is learned via exposureLiterature read for pleasure, not parsingResult: ability to use L2Can we get rid of the red underlining?
8THE REFORM MOVEMENT (IPA founded 1886): Sweet, Vietor, Passy, etc. Spoken language is primary- teach firstApply phonetics to language teachingTrain language teachers in phoneticsGive learners basic phonetic training in L2Please delete final dot that has no text after it. Can we get rid of red underlining?
10THE READING APPROACH Teach only the grammar needed for reading Control vocabulary initially then expandTranslation is once more respectableOnly reading comprehension is emphasizedResult: Learners can read but not speak/understand L2.
11AUDIOLINGUALISM (U.S.) Begin lessons with dialogues (constructed) Mimicry and memorization are used to reflect that lg. learning is habit formationGrammar is sequenced; rules taught indirectlySkills are sequenced (L, Sp, R, Wr)Accurate pronunciation is emphasized earlyVocabulary is very limited initiallyEffort is made to prevent errorsLg. is often manipulated with minimal attention to meaning or context.
12ORAL-SITUATIONAL APPROACH (U.K.) Spoken language is primaryLg. is practiced orally before any reading or writing occursOnly the target language should be usedThe most useful and general vocabulary is taughtGrammar is sequenced: simple to complexNew vocabulary and grammar are introduced and practiced in situations (post office, bank, dinner table, etc.)
14THE COGNITIVE APPROACH Lg. learning is rule acquisition, not habit formation Instruction is individualized and learners are responsible for their learning Grammar can be taught either deductively or InductivelyPronunciation is de-emphasizedReading and writing are as important as speaking and listening Vocabulary is important again, especially for intermediate and advanced learners Errors are inevitable and useful for feedback and correction
15AFFECTIVE-HUMANISTIC APPROACH Lg. learning is a process of self-realizationRespect for each individual’s feelings emphasized (teacher and students) Class atmosphere is more important than methods or materials Priority given to personally meaningful communication Instruction often involves pair- or group-work Peer support and cooperation help learning Teacher is a counselor or facilitator (instead of the ultimate source of knowledge) Translation can be used, especially in the early stages
16THE COMPREHENSION-BASED APPROACH Listening comprehension is the basic skill that allows other skills and lg acquisition to develop Learners begin with an initial silent period so they can just listen and understand Learners do not speak until they feel ready to Exposure to meaningful input that expands their experience in the L2 leads to acquisition Explicit rule learning is helpful in monitoring and editing one’s L2 production but not for acquisition or spontaneous production Error correction is unnecessary if the learner’s message is understandable
17THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH Communication is the goal of L2 learningSemantic notions and social functions are as important as linguistic structureContent (academic or job-related) is often taught along with lg.Students work in pairs or groups to transfer information and negotiate meaningRole play and dramatization help achieve register flexibility and social sensitivity in L2Tasks often make use of authentic texts and tasks or involve the completion of projectsThe 4 skills (L, Sp, R, Wr) are integratedTeacher (1) facilitates communication and (2) offers feedback and correction
18THE 1970’S “DESIGNER METHODS” Silent Way (Gattegno)Community Language Learning (Curran)Total Physical Response (Asher)Suggestology/Suggestopedia (Lozanov)
19RESEARCH-BASED CONCLUSION (Strevens, Richards, Prabhu)No single method or approach is optimal for all learners under all circumstances
21KumaravadiveluBase pedagogy on principles established by research. He offers 10 ‘macrostrategies’Maximize learning opportunitiesFacilitate negotiated interactionMinimize perceptual mismatchesActivate intuitive heuristicsFoster language awarenessContextualize linguistic inputIntegrate language skillsPromote learner autonomyRaise cultural consciousnessEnsure social relevanceTeachers should design situation-specific materials and procedures to achieve the above objectives
22TEACHER PREPARATION SKILLS (needed for post-methods language teaching)Assess learners’ needsExamine instructional constraintsDetermine attitudes, learning styles, and cultural backgrounds of students to tailor materials/activitiesIdentify the discourse genres, speech activities, and text types students need to learn L2 when designing materialsIdentify assessment instruments and requirements and prepare learners to deal with such tasks as part of classroom instruction(Note: This is in addition to the traditional teacher preparation core subjects such as methodology, pedagogical grammar, syllabus/curriculum design, practical phonetics, teaching listening & speaking, teaching reading & writing, etc.)In 5th item, change “test types” to “text types” please. My typo!
24How to integrate everything we now know into better, more encompassing practices? Research into the following six areas could yield new methodological paradigms (Canagarajah):MotivationLearner VariabilityDiscourse AnalysisCorpus-based ResearchCognitive ProcessingSocial ParticipationTo this list we can add:New TechnologiesSecond Language Acquisition (new ways to study it)Others?