16Poultry Enterprises Three General Types of Chicken Enterprises 1. Egg ProductionLaying hens produce eggsConfined cages or free-rangeAfter production cycle, hens sold for meat
172. Broiler Production 3. Replacement Pullets Raising chickens for meat High quality rations fed to secure rapid, efficient gains3. Replacement PulletsRaising chicks for egg production or broiler production
18Production/Consumption Trends # of farms with laying hens decreased# of chickens raised per farm increasedEggs-- Slight decline in popularityCholesterol concernsChicken Meat– Major increase in popularityPerceived to have less cholesterol than beef/pork
19Laying Hens & Egg Production Leading StatesLaying Hens & Egg Production
20Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zbkkkn_PxE&feature=related Chick ProductionBroiler Production
86Early Work TuesdayWhat did your parents say when you described the internal egg to them? What is candling?What are the 3 main grades of eggs? Which is best?
87Animal Science- Candling/INcubation Monday, February 8th, 2011Animal Science- Candling/INcubation
88Problem Statement Objectives How will Cameron candle and incubate eggs?Objectives1. Identify candling techniques and incubation guidelines.2. Candle and label eggs.3. Starts eggs in the incubator.
89Candling EggsShining a light through eggs to determine internal characteristics
90Freshly laid egg is about 107 degrees- same as hen Egg cools to surrounding temperatures, egg contents shrink, shell remains the same, more pores at the large end of the egg– air enters and fills the space left by shrinking contentsChicken pips through membranes to air cell– first breath of air in this space
91Air Cell Increases during incubation Not too small Not too big Chick will be strangled on fluidsNot too bigFluids will be dried up and chick will be weak and may stick to the shell
93Incubation of Eggs Dry Bulb Wet Bulb Humidity 100 degreesheatWet Bulb86 degreeshumidityHumidityToo high= chick drowns in fluidsToo low= chick sticks to side of shell
94HatchingDo not bother the thermostat unless it is absolutely necessary. The working of the machine may be affected if the thermostat is tampered with excessively.Keep the eggs clean. Perspiration or grease from the hands is not good because it can stop up the pores of the shells.After each temperature adjustment, allow ample time for temperature to stabilize.Avoid opening the lid after each hatch.
95Albumen Chalaza Chick develops in this fluid Food and protein for the chickChalazaTurns as the chick is rotatedAllows yolk to turn so chick is always on top
96Incubation Large end up, small end facing down Pores are bigger and more numerousPores allow carbon dioxide and moisture to be released, oxygen to enter the egg shell3 days before eggs are to hatchRemove from turner
99Break Out= Cracking egg to see albumen Tight albumenHigh yolk
100How the chick hatchesUsing its egg tooth (a tiny sharp horn on the top of its beak) the chick pecks at the shell thousands of times. Finally it pips through the shell and begins to breathe air directly from the outside. After it has made a hole in the shell, the chick stops piping for a few hours and rests while its lungs are getting used to the outside atmosphere.There is a high level of carbon dioxide in the egg compared with the outside environment. This actually causes the neck muscles of the chick to jerk and allow him to peck through the eggshell.After resting the chick continues to pip by beginning to turn slowly inside the egg. As it turns, usually counter-clockwise, the egg tooth continues to ship away. In about 5 hours, the chick has made about three quarters of a turn inside the egg.As the chick moves around the shell it begins pushing on the egg cap. Squirming and struggling the chick pushes the cap for about one hour. Finally it breaks free from the shell,still wet and panting.