Describe the dairy farm tour. Why did the chicken cross the road? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdFIXsrjkXI&feature=related (chicken dance) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdFIXsrjkXI&feature=related
Three General Types of Chicken Enterprises 1. Egg Production Laying hens produce eggs Confined cages or free-range After production cycle, hens sold for meat
2. Broiler Production Raising chickens for meat High quality rations fed to secure rapid, efficient gains 3. Replacement Pullets Raising chicks for egg production or broiler production
# of farms with laying hens decreased # of chickens raised per farm increased Eggs-- Slight decline in popularity Cholesterol concerns Chicken Meat– Major increase in popularity Perceived to have less cholesterol than beef/pork
Problem Statement How will Cameron candle and incubate eggs? Objectives 1. Identify candling techniques and incubation guidelines. 2. Candle and label eggs. 3. Starts eggs in the incubator.
Shining a light through eggs to determine internal characteristics
Freshly laid egg is about 107 degrees- same as hen Egg cools to surrounding temperatures, egg contents shrink, shell remains the same, more pores at the large end of the egg– air enters and fills the space left by shrinking contents Chicken pips through membranes to air cell– first breath of air in this space
Increases during incubation Not too small Chick will be strangled on fluids Not too big Fluids will be dried up and chick will be weak and may stick to the shell
Dry Bulb 100 degrees heat Wet Bulb 86 degrees humidity Humidity Too high= chick drowns in fluids Too low= chick sticks to side of shell
Do not bother the thermostat unless it is absolutely necessary. The working of the machine may be affected if the thermostat is tampered with excessively. Keep the eggs clean. Perspiration or grease from the hands is not good because it can stop up the pores of the shells. After each temperature adjustment, allow ample time for temperature to stabilize. Avoid opening the lid after each hatch.
Albumen Chick develops in this fluid Food and protein for the chick Chalaza Turns as the chick is rotated Allows yolk to turn so chick is always on top
Large end up, small end facing down Pores are bigger and more numerous Pores allow carbon dioxide and moisture to be released, oxygen to enter the egg shell 3 days before eggs are to hatch Remove from turner
Break Out= Cracking egg to see albumen Tight albumen High yolk
Using its egg tooth (a tiny sharp horn on the top of its beak) the chick pecks at the shell thousands of times. Finally it pips through the shell and begins to breathe air directly from the outside. After it has made a hole in the shell, the chick stops piping for a few hours and rests while its lungs are getting used to the outside atmosphere. There is a high level of carbon dioxide in the egg compared with the outside environment. This actually causes the neck muscles of the chick to jerk and allow him to peck through the eggshell. After resting the chick continues to pip by beginning to turn slowly inside the egg. As it turns, usually counter-clockwise, the egg tooth continues to ship away. In about 5 hours, the chick has made about three quarters of a turn inside the egg. As the chick moves around the shell it begins pushing on the egg cap. Squirming and struggling the chick pushes the cap for about one hour. Finally it breaks free from the shell,still wet and panting.