All cultures accept poultry for human consumption Muslim and Jewish cultures do not eat pork Hindu cultures do not eat beef
3 TOP PRODUCERS OF POULTRY IN THE WORLD 1.China 2.Soviet Union 3.United States At one time in our history, all families in rural areas had some type of poultry. Not only did chickens provide the family with fresh eggs, but also with fresh meat.
BROILER Broiler Industry: the raising of chickens for meat Broiler: a bird that is grown to about 7 or 8 weeks old and is dressed for market
BROILER COMPANY In the broiler industry, a company such as Tyson, Perdue, etc. will supply the producer (farmer) with the chicks, feed, medications, vaccines, and other supplies. The company also agrees to pay the producer a predetermined price per pound for the boilers produced.
BROILER PRODUCER The producer provides The house Feeding and watering equipment Utilities Litter material Waste disposal Labor
VERTICAL INTEGRATION The company is usually vertically integrated. Vertical Integration: the company owns the hatchery, feed mills, processing plants, and distribution centers
BROILER HOUSING A broiler house can hold 6,000 to 40,000 birds When the birds are small, heat is provided by brooders. Brooders are powered by gas or electricity. The houses is lighted almost around the clock According to the research, light greatly reduces cannibalism. Cannibalism: the attacking of birds by other birds in a flock Lights are turned out for 1 hour each night to keep the birds from becoming hyperactive in the event that the power goes out
BROILER PRODUCTION Begins with the production of eggs to be hatched for young broilers The parents are selected because of their rapid growth rate and large amount of breast meat Broiler hens are quite different in appearance from egg laying hens Layers that produce eggs for consumption are selected for their egg laying capacity
BROILER PRODUCTION Most broilers are hybrid birds o Crossed between different breeds of chickens to produce the meaty birds that are desired Crossbred birds are generally healthier and grow faster than purebred animals o Known as heterosis or hybrid vigor
THE PROCESS Step 1 : Eggs are produced at a laying facility Step 2 : Eggs are transported to a hatchery where they are incubated and hatched Step 3 : Hatched chickens are transported to a broiler house Step 4 : Grown to 6 or 7 weeks old before they are ready for the market
AT THE BROILER HOUSE Before the birds arrive, the house is Cleaned Disinfected Litter is placed on the ground Litter Placed on the floor Keeps the birds clean and dry Usually consists of shavings or sawdust
AT THE BROILER HOUSE Brooders are large pan-shaped heaters that are used to keep the chicks warm during their first days in the house. Birds are fed by conveyer belts that automatically food. Water is also supplied automatically. Once the birds reach 6-7 weeks old, they are ready for market They are usually caught at night when they are less active Once the birds are gone, the litter must be changed The litter is used as a fertilizer for pastures and growing plants.
LAYER INDUSTRY EGGS The consumption of eggs has greatly decreased over the last 30 years Reflection of dietary changes Over 90% of eggs are produced by layers in cages Hens live in cages Usually 4 hens per cage The birds have been developed to tolerate the confinement operation and to effectively produce eggs
LAYERS The smaller birds use a large proportion of their metabolism to produce eggs instead of producing muscles and body size. Produce brown and white eggs In the US, the vast majority of eggs sold are white eggs because that is what the consumer prefers
LAYERS Lighting is carefully controlled Hens naturally lay eggs in the spring and summer months Days are longer with more hours of light and fewer hours of dark in the spring In these facilities, the light is controlled to allow 14-15 hours of light each day Once the hens reach maturity, they receive 15 hours of light per day
EGGS The hens lay their eggs The eggs drop onto a conveyor belt The conveyor belt carries the eggs to a collection point At the processing plant, the eggs are coated with a thin coat of light mineral oil. The mineral oil prevents carbon dioxide from escaping from inside of the eggs.
EGGS Graded according to shape and size Candling: the process using intense light to check for cracks and interior spots
TURKEYS 2 nd only to chickens in the production of poultry 1/3 of all sales occur in the weeks surrounding Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays Turkeys produced are descendants of wild turkeys native to the Americas Consumers prefer to buy white turkeys and white chickens Birds with colored feathers have spots on their skin
TURKEYS White Turkeys Mutation Created by accident when the gene for skin pigmentation was left out From there, a heavily muscled, broad breasted bird was developed Poor breeders Must be bred by AI
GROWING TURKEYS Most are grown in South Atlantic region of the US North Carolina 2 Methods for growing Turkeys 1.Confinement Houses 2.Open Range Downside to open range: disease and parasites
OTHER POULTRY Duck, quail, and pheasant are produced for restaurants. Quail and pheasants are produced for re-stocking wildlife areas.