4Largest Producers in the world are China the countries of the former Soviet UnionUnited States
5The Broiler IndustryToday, almost all of the poultry is raised in large operationsthe term broiler refers to chickens which are about 7-8 weeks of age and are raised for meat
6The Broiler Industry concentrated in the South East leading states are Arkansas, Georgia, and Alabamamajority of broilers raised in this country are raised on contract
7Broiler Housesraised in large houses where the birds spend most of their livesdesigned to provide the ultimate in environmental conditions for the comfort of the birds.
8Broiler Houses generally lighted 24 hours a day helps cut down on cannibalism
9Cannibalismaccording to research, fitting birds with red contact lenses helps to decrease cannibalismnot a common practice because of the cost.
10Broiler Productionprocess begins with the production of eggs that will be hatched into chicks.Parents are selected from breeds that are large and muscular
11Broiler Productiondifferent in appearance from those chickens used to produce eggs for consumptionLayers are selected on their ability to lay eggs
12Broiler Productionmost are hybrids derived from mating of different breedsusually mated through artificial inseminationresults in heterosis or hybrid vigor
13Hybrid Vigorthe resulting offspring are healthier and outproduce the average of their parents.
14Broiler Production most are white colored birds have pigmentation spots in their skin which is undesirable to the consumer
15Egg Productioneggs are expelled from the hens body and the embryo develops outside the mother’s body.Eggs are encased in a hard shell and can weigh several ounces
16Egg Production most mammal eggs are microscopic process begins with the release of the ovum (yolk) from the ovary
17Egg Productionif the female has been mated, the ovum will be fertilized within the infundibulum.The albumin or white of the egg is secreted by cells in the magnum.
18Egg Production Chalazae is formed it is a ropelike substance which holds the yolk in place in the center of the egg.Inner and outer shell membranes are formed in the isthmus
19Egg Production the shell is formed in the uterus in hours the shell is completed and moves to the vagina and out of the hens body.
20Egg Production hens prefer nesting boxes that are enclosed gives the chickens a feeling of security
21Egg Productionsome facilities collect eggs with the use of a conveyor beltthe egg rolls out of the nest box and onto the belt
22Egg Production eggs must be kept clean and free from contamination if the egg becomes soiled it will not be used for hatching
23Egg Production dirt may be easily scrubbed off the egg this process can press dirt into the shell and removes the protective coating on the egg
24Egg hatchingeggs are stored at degrees until being placed in the hatcherywithin 48 hours after incubation begins the embryo has developed a circulatory system
25Egg hatchingcirculatory system sustains life by carrying nourishment from the yolk to the embryoeggs are turned at least two times per day
26Egg hatchingturning eggs keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shellby the end of the first week, embryos are recognizable as chickens
27Egg hatching after two weeks, the chicks are covered with down incubation takes about 21 days.
28Egg hatchingAfter hatching, chicks are removed from the incubator, dried off, cleaned, and placed in a warm dry environment.The chicks are sexed and separated into groups.
29Egg hatchingAt one day of age chicks are vaccinated and the beaks are trimmed to prevent canabalism.Chicks are then placed in ventilated cardboard boxes to be shipped to the broiler house.
30Egg hatchingBefore the chicks arrive at the broiler house it must be cleaned and disinfected.Fresh bedding is placed in the house.Heaters, called brooders are suspended from the ceiling to keep the birds warm.
31Egg hatchingChicks are usually kept in the broiler house for seven to eight weeks.At that time they weigh about 4 1/2 pounds and are ready for market.
32Egg hatchingWhen the broilers are transported to the processing plant, the house is again cleaned.The bedding is very high in Nitrogen and is used for fertilizer, it may also be used as a source of protein in cattle rations.
33Layer IndustryPer capita egg consumption in the U.S. has drastically decreased over the past thirty years.Even with the decrease in demand, the layer industry is quite strong.
34Layer Industry Over 90% of eggs produced are by layers in cages. The most common grouping is four hens per cage.Some layers produce brown eggs and some produce white eggs.
35Layer Industry Most eggs sold in the U.S. are white. In commercial operations, lighting is used to stimulate the hormonal activity of the hens to increase their production of eggs.
36Layer IndustryThey produce eggs naturally when the days are longer than the nights.Most operations allow hours of light per day.
37Layer IndustryAs eggs are laid they roll onto a conveyor belt where they go to a work room where they are cleaned if necessary and refrigerated.
38Layer IndustryEggs are coated with a thin coat of mineral oil to prevent carbon dioxide from escaping from within the egg.Eggs are graded according to size and checked for cracks and interior spots by candling.
39The turkey industryThe sale of turkey is second to chicken in the overall sale of poultry meat.Between 1980 and 1990 turkey consumption increased 92% in the U.S.
40The turkey industryTurkey represents a high quality, low cost, nutritious source of food protein.One third of all turkey sales occur during the weeks around Thanksgiving and Christmas.
41The turkey industryThe modern white turkey is a descendant of the wild turkey and is result of a mutation which left the gene out for feather and skin pigmentation.Heavy muscled, broad breasted birds have been developed.
42The turkey industryThese highly developed birds are not efficient breeders.The physical act of mating is difficult because of the weight of the birds and because of this they are reluctant to breed.
43The turkey industryThis problem is solved through artificial insemination.They heavy breasted birds have another problem.Their legs can’t support them when they reach a certain size and the weight of their breasts makes them tip over.
44The turkey industryTurkeys are grown in confinement houses and on ranges.
45Other poultryIn some parts of the world ducks and geese make up a major portion of the poultry raised and consumed.This is true in China and Southeast Asia.
46Other poultryIn some areas quail and pheasant are grown for the gourmet food and restaurant market and for release in the wild to stock the population for hunters.