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Linda Wozniewski Sharon Ramsey Food Chemistry (B)

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1 Linda Wozniewski lwoz@iun.edu Sharon Ramsey Food Chemistry (B)

2 Disclaimer This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules

3 Safety Students must wear: Students must wear: Closed shoes Closed shoes Slacks or skirts that come to the ankles Slacks or skirts that come to the ankles Lab coat or lab apron Lab coat or lab apron Indirect vent or unvented chemical splash proof goggles. No impact glasses or visorgogs are permitted Indirect vent or unvented chemical splash proof goggles. No impact glasses or visorgogs are permitted Long-Sleeved Shirt (if wearing a lab apron) Long-Sleeved Shirt (if wearing a lab apron)

4 What Students MUST Bring Impounded Impounded None None Non-Impounded Non-Impounded Homemade viscometer Homemade viscometer Standard curve Standard curve A writing instrument A writing instrument

5 What Students May Bring Non-programmable Calculator Non-programmable Calculator 1 sheet of paper on which anything is acceptable 1 sheet of paper on which anything is acceptable

6 What Supervisors Will Supply Everything the student will need Everything the student will need This may include: This may include: Glassware Glassware Reagents Reagents Balances Balances Hot plates Hot plates Thermometers Thermometers Probes Probes Magnets Magnets Stirrers Stirrers

7 Main Focus Chemistry of Food Chemistry of Food How to prepare students How to prepare students Experiment ideas Experiment ideas Resources Resources

8 Chemistry of Food a. Identify the sources of and understand the role of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins typically found in cookies, and use tests to identify these compounds, including the Benedicts, Iodine and Brown Bag tests. a. Identify the sources of and understand the role of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins typically found in cookies, and use tests to identify these compounds, including the Benedicts, Iodine and Brown Bag tests. b. When given samples of sweeteners, use the Benedicts test to identify reducing sugars. b. When given samples of sweeteners, use the Benedicts test to identify reducing sugars. c. When given samples of cupcake ingredients, use the Biuret test to identify and rank the ingredients by protein content. c. When given samples of cupcake ingredients, use the Biuret test to identify and rank the ingredients by protein content. d. When given formulations, processes, and finished cupcakes, identify the error in the cupcake formulation and/or process used. d. When given formulations, processes, and finished cupcakes, identify the error in the cupcake formulation and/or process used. e. Use standard labeling regulations to produce a label from information given. e. Use standard labeling regulations to produce a label from information given. f. Determine the moisture loss and density of cupcakes. f. Determine the moisture loss and density of cupcakes. g. Identify leavening agents using chemical tests, and understand the role of the leavening agents in baked cupcakes. g. Identify leavening agents using chemical tests, and understand the role of the leavening agents in baked cupcakes.

9 Before your event Research! Understand the science first Research! Understand the science first Experiments – eight mandatory (including Experiments – eight mandatory (including Viscotester Production and Standard Curve)

10 Ingredients The right ingredients The right ingredients Liquids…. Liquids…. Lipids Lipids Leavening agents Leavening agents Flours Flours Sweeteners Sweeteners Must understand WHY you are using the ingredient…what function does it provide? Must understand WHY you are using the ingredient…what function does it provide? Teams are limited to listed ingredients Teams are limited to listed ingredients

11 List of Approved Ingredients LiquidsLipids Leavening agents FloursSweeteners Water, Whole Milk (Cow or Goat), Skim Milk, Buttermilk, Almond Milk, Soy Milk, Coconut Milk, Eggs, Egg Substitute Vegetable oils, Shortening, Butter Margarines, Chocolate Baking powder Baking soda Cream of tartar Flavoring Salt All purpose white flour Bread flour Cake flour Whole wheat flour Almond flour Coconut flour Corn Flour Rice Flour Sugar Brown sugar Honey Sucralose Aspartame Vanilla For State & Nationals Fructose Powdered Sugar Each recipe must contain at least one egg or one egg substitute equivalent.

12 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Cox(H 2 O) y carbon along with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water Cox(H 2 O) y carbon along with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water Basic unit – monosaccharide Basic unit – monosaccharide Multiple units – Multiple units – disaccharide (2) disaccharide (2) trisaccharide (3) trisaccharide (3) oligosaccharide (2-10) oligosaccharide (2-10) polysaccharide (>10) polysaccharide (>10)

13 Carbohydrates Sugars Sugars Monosaccharides Monosaccharides Glucose, Fructose Glucose, Fructose Disaccharides Disaccharides Lactose (glucose and galactose) - milk Lactose (glucose and galactose) - milk Maltose (glucose and glucose) - Maltose (glucose and glucose) - Sucrose (glucose and fructose –table sugar Sucrose (glucose and fructose –table sugar Reducing sugars Examples: glucose, lactose, fructose Non-reducing sugar contains no hemiacetal groups. Example: sucrose

14 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Examples: Examples: starch - glucose polymers, found in plants starch - glucose polymers, found in plants cellulose –found in plant fibers, insoluble cellulose –found in plant fibers, insoluble Pectin-units are sugar acids rather than simple sugars, found in vegetables and fruits Pectin-units are sugar acids rather than simple sugars, found in vegetables and fruits Branched vs. linear Branched vs. linear Starches are a mixture of branched (amylopectin) and linear (amylose) polysaccharides Starches are a mixture of branched (amylopectin) and linear (amylose) polysaccharides

15 Tests for carbohydrates Benedicts test for sugars Benedicts test for sugars Iodine test for starch Iodine test for starch Positive Reaction

16 Benedicts Test The Benedict's test allows us to detect the presence of reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group). All monosaccharides are reducing sugars. Some disaccharides are also reducing sugars. Other disaccharides such as sucrose are non-reducing sugars and will not react with Benedict's solution. Starches are also non-reducing sugars. The copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) present in Benedict's solution reacts with electrons from the reducing sugar to form cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a red-brown precipitate. The final color of the solution depends on how much of this precipitate was formed, and therefore the color gives an indication of how much reducing sugar was present if a quantitative reagent was used. With increasing amounts of reducing sugar the result will be: green yellow orange red

17 Iodine Test The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch. The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch. Iodine solution – Iodine is dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide - reacts with starch producing a deep blue- black color. Iodine solution – Iodine is dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide - reacts with starch producing a deep blue- black color. Although the exact chemistry of the color change is not known, it is believed that the iodine changes the shape of the starch to change the color Although the exact chemistry of the color change is not known, it is believed that the iodine changes the shape of the starch to change the color

18 Lipids Present as fats extracted from plants or animals (butter, vegetable oil) or as constituents of food (chocolate) Present as fats extracted from plants or animals (butter, vegetable oil) or as constituents of food (chocolate) Contributions to foods: texture and flavor Contributions to foods: texture and flavor Contain only Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Contain only Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Most common form for lipid in foods is as a triglyceride Most common form for lipid in foods is as a triglyceride What difference in texture would you see substituting vegetable shortening or vegetable oil for butter in the formulation? What difference in texture would you see substituting vegetable shortening or vegetable oil for butter in the formulation?

19 Saturated Lipids (Fats) Saturated fats have no double bonds in any of the fatty acid chains in the triglyceride hence it is saturated with hydrogen. Saturated fats have no double bonds in any of the fatty acid chains in the triglyceride hence it is saturated with hydrogen. Considered not heart healthy Considered not heart healthy Food Lauric acid Myristc acid Palmitc acid Stearic acid Coconut oil47%18%9%3% Butter3%11%29%13% Dark chocolate 0% 34%43% Eggs0%0.3%27%10% Soybean oil0% 11%4%

20 Unsaturated Fats (Lipids) Have one (monounsaturated) or more (polyunsaturated) carbon chains This means there are one or more double bonds in the chain

21 Lipids http://www.wellsphere.com/he althy-cooking-article/butter-vs- shortening-in-baking/156136 http://www.wellsphere.com/he althy-cooking-article/butter-vs- shortening-in-baking/156136 Conversion between solid structure to a liquid state is called the melting point How would changing the melting point of the lipid used change the cookie texture? Brown Bag Test

22 Proteins Proteins are made up of amino acids Proteins are made up of amino acids essential and nonessential essential and nonessential Contains Nitrogen Contains Nitrogen Protein can be found in the flour, egg and milk as well as other ingredients. Protein can be found in the flour, egg and milk as well as other ingredients.

23 Proteins Biuret Test Biuret Test The Biuret Reagent is made of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate. The blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and the darker the purple color, the more protein is present. The Biuret Reagent is made of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate. The blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and the darker the purple color, the more protein is present. Biurets Reagent is unstable, but can be mixed on the spot using NaOH & Benedicts Biurets Reagent is unstable, but can be mixed on the spot using NaOH & Benedicts

24 Leavening agents Used to produce a gas that 'lightens' dough or batter. Used to produce a gas that 'lightens' dough or batter. used to raise baked goods. used to raise baked goods. water a leavening agent (pie crusts, some crackers) water a leavening agent (pie crusts, some crackers) air incorporated into batter (angel and sponge cakes) air incorporated into batter (angel and sponge cakes) expand when heated and cause the raising of the dough or batter when gas is trapped in matrix of gluten and starch from flour expand when heated and cause the raising of the dough or batter when gas is trapped in matrix of gluten and starch from flour

25 Leavening agents Baking soda Baking soda -NaHCO3 -NaHCO3 Needs moisture plus an acid source such as vinegar, citrus juice, sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, chocolate, cocoa (not Dutch- processed), honey, molasses (also brown sugar), fruits or maple syrup to react Needs moisture plus an acid source such as vinegar, citrus juice, sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, chocolate, cocoa (not Dutch- processed), honey, molasses (also brown sugar), fruits or maple syrup to react used to neutralize acids in foods used to neutralize acids in foods around 4 times as strong as baking powder around 4 times as strong as baking powder can cause soapy flavor in high amounts can cause soapy flavor in high amounts

26 Leavening agents Baking powder Baking powder NaHCO3 plus acidifier(s) and drying agent (usually an acid salt and cornstarch) NaHCO3 plus acidifier(s) and drying agent (usually an acid salt and cornstarch) can cause acidity and/or bitter off-flavor can cause acidity and/or bitter off-flavor two acidifiers used in double acting to produce CO2 in two steps two acidifiers used in double acting to produce CO2 in two steps Reacts when moistened and also reacts when heated Reacts when moistened and also reacts when heated double-acting is the only commercial baking powder available today. double-acting is the only commercial baking powder available today.

27 Standard Recipe 2 1/4 cups flour 1 1/3 cups sugar 3 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup shortening 1 cup milk 1 teaspoon vanilla 2 large eggs

28 Effect of Ingredients Batch #FlourLeavening agentSweetenerLiquidEgglipidSaltVanilla 1 2 ¼ cups 3 tsps. baking powder1 1/3 Cup 1 cup milk or sub. 2 large or substitute none½ tsp.1 tsp. 2 2 ¼ cups 3 tsps. baking powder1 1/3 Cup 1 cup milk or sub. 2 large or substitute 3 Tbsp oil ½ tsp.none 3 2 ¼ cups None1 1/3 Cup 1 cup milk or sub. 2 large or substitute 3 Tbsp oil ½ tsp.1 tsp. 4 2 ¼ cups 3 tsps. baking soda1 1/3 Cup 1 cup milk or sub. 2 large or substitute 3 Tbsp oil ½ tsp.1 tsp. 5 2 ¼ cups 3 tsps. baking powder1 1/3 Cup 2 cup milk or sub. 2 large or substitute 3 Tbsp oil½ tsp.1 tsp. 6 2 ¼ cups 3 tsps. baking powder2 1/3 Cup1 cup milk or sub. 2 large or substitute 3 Tbsp oil ½ tsp.1 tsp.

29 Mixing Technique Incorporate ingredients Incorporate ingredients Hydrate dry ingredients Hydrate dry ingredients Experiment set 2 explores the best method to mix the batter Experiment set 2 explores the best method to mix the batter

30 Standard Mixing Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Line cupcake pans with paper liners. Combine flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt in a large mixing bowl. Add shortening, milk, and vanilla. Beat for 1 minute on medium speed. Scrape side of bowl with a spatula. Add eggs to the mixture. Beat for 1 minute on medium speed. Scrape bowl again. Beat on high speed for 1 minute 30 seconds until well mixed. Spoon cupcake batter into paper liners until 1/2 to 2/3 full. Bake for 20 to 25 minutes or until toothpick inserted in center comes out clean. Cool 5 minutes in pans then remove and place on wire racks to cool completely.

31 Mixing Technique Batch #Step 1Step 2Step 3Step 4 1 Mix dry ingredients together Add liquid ingredients Using spoon, stir ingredients for 30 seconds Add egg. Use spoon to stir for 1 minute 2 Mix dry ingredients together Add liquid ingredients Pour into blender or use hand mixer and blend or mix 2 minutes Add egg. Use mixer or blender to blend for 1 minute 3 Mix dry ingredients together Add liquid ingredients Use whisk, stir ingredients 1 minute Add egg. Use whisk, stir ingredients 2 minutes

32 Notebook/3-ring binder Notebook keeping (t. Optional but suggested for keeping records of all experimental data and documentation Notebook keeping (t eams are encouraged to bake goods, observe and record the differences caused by adjusting the ingredients from the Approved List of Ingredients). Optional but suggested for keeping records of all experimental data and documentation May be bound, spiral, or ring May be bound, spiral, or ring Must securely hold all items Must securely hold all items Dont erase in lab notebook! Dont erase in lab notebook! Document all references Document all references Use pen Use pen

33 Notebook i. Experiment Name – 2 Points i. Experiment Name – 2 Points ii. Hypothesis – 4 points ii. Hypothesis – 4 points iii. Variables: iii. Variables: a. Controlled Variable(s) – 2 points a. Controlled Variable(s) – 2 points b. Independent Variable(s) – 2 points b. Independent Variable(s) – 2 points c. Dependent Variable(s) – 2 points c. Dependent Variable(s) – 2 points iv. Materials (amount of each ingredient in grams or milliliters) – 4 points iv. Materials (amount of each ingredient in grams or milliliters) – 4 points v. Procedure – 10 points v. Procedure – 10 points vi. Qualitative observations during the experiment (be sure to include sensory score sheet) – 6 points vi. Qualitative observations during the experiment (be sure to include sensory score sheet) – 6 points vii. Quantitative observations during the experiment (Data table, graphs-be sure to include nutritional calculations, viscosity testing, density, and crumb testing results) – 10 points vii. Quantitative observations during the experiment (Data table, graphs-be sure to include nutritional calculations, viscosity testing, density, and crumb testing results) – 10 points viii. Discussion of Results – 6 points viii. Discussion of Results – 6 points ix. References – 2 points ix. References – 2 points

34 Cupcake Use any combination of ingredients from the approved list as well as physical parameter changes (temperature, cupcake lining materials, etc.) to formulate an ideal team cupcake. Teams may choose variables used in the first two experiments or use new variables. If a recipe from a cookbook or web site is used as a starting source, the source must be listed in the notebook. Use any combination of ingredients from the approved list as well as physical parameter changes (temperature, cupcake lining materials, etc.) to formulate an ideal team cupcake. Teams may choose variables used in the first two experiments or use new variables. If a recipe from a cookbook or web site is used as a starting source, the source must be listed in the notebook. Aiming for a density of 0.3 g/ml Aiming for a density of 0.3 g/ml Aiming for less than 0.3% of the mass of the cupcake to be left on liner or in crumbs when liner taken off Aiming for less than 0.3% of the mass of the cupcake to be left on liner or in crumbs when liner taken off Must have nutrition food label Must have nutrition food label

35 Viscotester Made from 8 oz Styrofoam cup Made from 8 oz Styrofoam cup Heat 16 penny nail with tea candle for ~1 minute (or until it gets too hot to hold) Heat 16 penny nail with tea candle for ~1 minute (or until it gets too hot to hold) Heat Punch hole from INSIDE into center bottom of cup Punch hole from INSIDE into center bottom of cup Place tape over hole Place tape over hole Time how long it takes for same amount of each standard liquid to break flow as it leaves Time how long it takes for same amount of each standard liquid to break flow as it leaves When determining how much fluid to use, keep a couple of items in mind When determining how much fluid to use, keep a couple of items in mind The larger the amount of fluid the less influence reaction time will have on error. The larger the amount of fluid the less influence reaction time will have on error. The amount of fluid the event supervisor is likely to allow the team to have. The amount of fluid the event supervisor is likely to allow the team to have.

36 Standard Curve Use same amount of standard fluids to calibrate Use same amount of standard fluids to calibrate Use Time how long it takes to break stream Time how long it takes to break stream

37 Standard Curve

38 Viscosity Students need to investigate viscosity of their batters and compare to final results. Students need to investigate viscosity of their batters and compare to final results. The resistance of a fluid to deformation. The resistance of a fluid to deformation. Temperature dependent Temperature dependent *Dynamic or simple viscosity *Dynamic or simple viscosity Kinematic viscosity: ratio of viscosity/density Kinematic viscosity: ratio of viscosity/density Shear viscosity – reaction to a shearing stress (pumping, spraying, etc.) Shear viscosity – reaction to a shearing stress (pumping, spraying, etc.) Must know general nomenclature Must know general nomenclature

39 Measuring Density

40 Density Score Sheet Students should measure the density of each of their experimental cupcakes and record Students should measure the density of each of their experimental cupcakes and record Suggested DensitySuggested Score.28-.3295.25-.279 or.32-.3594.21-.249 or.36-.3893.19-.209 or.319-.422 Less than.19 or greater than.42 1

41 Nutrition Students will create a food label for their cupcakes properly indicating serving size, calories, amount fat, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, and protein, as well as accompanying daily value percentages. Students are NOT to be scored on how healthy the cupcake is, only on their ability to identify its role in a healthy diet.

42 Nutrition Calorie - amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. Calorie - amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. Kilocalorie (1000 calories) is the unit commonly used to represent energy values of foods -or Calorie with a C instead of a c Kilocalorie (1000 calories) is the unit commonly used to represent energy values of foods -or Calorie with a C instead of a c Not all carbohydrates (or fats, or proteins) yield the exact same amount of energy when burned in a calorimeter, so common averages from studies (in kcal/g) are used Not all carbohydrates (or fats, or proteins) yield the exact same amount of energy when burned in a calorimeter, so common averages from studies (in kcal/g) are used Carbohydrates average 4.1 kcal/gram in a bomb calorimeter, are about 98% digestible and yield 4 kcal/g when consumed Carbohydrates average 4.1 kcal/gram in a bomb calorimeter, are about 98% digestible and yield 4 kcal/g when consumed Proteins average 5.7 kcal/g in a bomb calorimeter, are not as easily digested and yield an average of 4 kcal/g when consumed Proteins average 5.7 kcal/g in a bomb calorimeter, are not as easily digested and yield an average of 4 kcal/g when consumed Lipids average 9.5 kcal/g in a bomb calorimeter, are 95% digested and yield an average of 9 kcal/g when consumed Lipids average 9.5 kcal/g in a bomb calorimeter, are 95% digested and yield an average of 9 kcal/g when consumed Fats (lipids) are the most concentrated source of food calories Fats (lipids) are the most concentrated source of food calories Carbohydrates are the cheapest source of calories, proteins the most expensive Carbohydrates are the cheapest source of calories, proteins the most expensive

43 Fiber Foods not digested by human digestive system Foods not digested by human digestive system Two types Two types Soluble Fiber-helps regulate blood sugar Soluble Fiber-helps regulate blood sugar Found in Oats & Oat Bran, some Fruits & vegys Found in Oats & Oat Bran, some Fruits & vegys Insoluble Fiber-helps clean out colon Insoluble Fiber-helps clean out colon Found in whole wheat, some fruit skins and vegys Found in whole wheat, some fruit skins and vegys

44 Nutritional labeling 1) Fill in the following blanks. a) There are ___ Calories/gram of fat. b) There are ___ Calories/gram of carbohydrate c) There are ___Calories/gram of protein d) There are ___Calories/gram of water 2) Use the nutritional label given for information to answer the following questions: a) Calculate the Calories in one serving of this product. (1) Calories from Fat (2) Calories from Protein (3) Total Calories in one serving b) What percent of the carbohydrate Calories come from fiber? c) If the daily value of iron is 18 mg per day, calculate the amount (in mg) of iron in one bar of this product.

45 Nutrition Scoring The labels will be scored as follows: The labels will be scored as follows: i. Creative Cupcake name (5 points) i. Creative Cupcake name (5 points) ii. Ingredient List in correct order (15 points) ii. Ingredient List in correct order (15 points) iii. Nutritional Facts in correct order (15 points) iii. Nutritional Facts in correct order (15 points) iv. Package Weight (10 points) iv. Package Weight (10 points) v. Company (team) Name and Address in the correct location (5 points) v. Company (team) Name and Address in the correct location (5 points) vi. Label Information matches notebook (10 points) vi. Label Information matches notebook (10 points)

46 Sensory Score Sheet AttributeScore (Circle for each attribute listed) Flavor Aroma 1 Terrible 2 3 Average 4 5 Very Pleasing Starch 1 Raw or burned 2 Under or over cooked 3 Slightly under or over cooked 4 Pleasingly cooked 5 Very Pleasingly cooked Dairy/Milky 1 Spoiled 2 Moderate off-flavor 3 Slightly off flavor 4 OK 5 Pleasant Sweetness 1 Way too much or too little 2 Moderately too much or too little 3 Slightly too sweet or too tart 4 About right 5 Perfect sweetness Vanilla 1 Way too much or not enough 2 Moderately too much or too little 3 Slightly too much or too little 4 About right 5 Excellent Texture Surface 1 Really rough 2 Somewhat rough 3 Moderately rough 4 Slightly smooth 5 Smooth Moisture 1 Dry 2 Moderately dry 3 Somewhat dry 4 Somewhat moist 5 Moisture just right Cohesiveness 1 Really gummy 2 Somewhat gummy 3 Slightly gummy 4 Falls apart easily 5 Just right Stickiness 1 Really sticky 2 Moderately sticky 3 Somewhat sticky 4 Slightly sticky 5 Just right Circle any of the following if present Sour Bitter Astringent Gritty Oxidized (paint) flavor

47 Resources For Event Supervisors For Event Supervisors http://mypage.iu.edu/~lwoz/socrime/index.ht m http://mypage.iu.edu/~lwoz/socrime/index.ht m http://mypage.iu.edu/~lwoz/socrime/index.ht m http://mypage.iu.edu/~lwoz/socrime/index.ht m For Lesson Plans for classroom use For Lesson Plans for classroom use http://mypage.iu.edu/~lwoz/socrime/index.ht m http://mypage.iu.edu/~lwoz/socrime/index.ht m http://mypage.iu.edu/~lwoz/socrime/index.ht m http://mypage.iu.edu/~lwoz/socrime/index.ht m

48 Questions Thank You

49 Time to Experiment We can make viscotesters We can simulate a standard curve data collection We can find the viscosity of a batter We can find the density of muffins We can work with some tests from a simulated test. It is your option


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