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Food Science B&C Pancakes!

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Presentation on theme: "Food Science B&C Pancakes!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Science B&C Pancakes!
Science Olympiad Food Science Event 2011

2 The Science of Pancakes
How hard can it be to make the perfect pancake? It takes… The right Ingredients The right Mixing technique Batter pouring or spreading technique Time to flip Amount of Browning SO Coaches Institute 2010

3 Before your event Research! Understand the science first
Experiments – four mandatory Mixing method Ingredient chemistry Method to form perfectly round pancakes Viscotester Production and Standard Curve SO Coaches Institute 2010

4 Mixing Technique Incorporate ingredients Hydrate dry ingredients
Experiment 1 explores the best method to mix the batter SO Coaches Institute 2010

5 Ingredients The right ingredients
Liquids…. Lipids Leavening agents Flours Sweeteners Must understand WHY you are using the ingredient…what function does it provide? Teams are limited to listed ingredients SO Coaches Institute 2010

6 Best technique for a perfectly round pancake?
Pour, plop, spiral, spread….Experiment 3 Viscosity of batter is important Don’t want a pattern on the pancake. May NOT use any aid to enclose batter (ring or wires) and may not trim the final pancake (we can tell by looking at the edges….) NO! SO Coaches Institute 2010

7 Notebooks Notebook keeping See Example Notebooks 40% of Regional score
All experimental data and documentation must be recorded in notebook May be bound, spiral, or ring Must securely hold all items Don’t erase in lab notebook! Document all references See Example Notebooks SO Coaches Institute 2010

8 Notebooks First page – School and Student Names
Second Page – Table of Contents Third Page and Following – Experiments Each experiment must have: Experiment Name Hypothesis Variables (controlled, independent; dependent) Materials Procedure Qualitative and Quantitative Observations Discussion of Results SO Coaches Institute 2010

9 Pancake judging In clear plastic bag, frozen or thawed.
1 2 3 4 5 10 9 8 7 6 In clear plastic bag, frozen or thawed. Judged on roundness SO Coaches Institute 2010

10 Sensory Testing Tasting! Two types of test
Sensory Analysis (State Tournament) Score attributes of sample, add up score, high score best sample Triangle Sensory Test (Experiment 2) Two samples at a time. Used to see if difference in samples is discernable or to identify good “tasters”. SO Coaches Institute 2010

11 Sensory Analysis Ballot can be used during trials to find best sample to take to State event and to analyze taste and texture of samples. Judges will use this form at State event to taste your pancakes SO Coaches Institute 2010

12 Triangle sensory test Two samples…three pieces Two same, one different
Try to pick samples that are same size, color Three random three-digit numbers for sample numbers. May blindfold taster to minimize sight differences. Hand the taster the pieces and tell them the number of the sample. Oreo Example SO Coaches Institute 2010

13 Day of Event Notebook (containing label) checked in by 9:00 am
Bring frozen pancake to event (Regional). 3 stations – Pancake roundness Ingredient chemistry Viscosity determination SO Coaches Institute 2010

14 State events Make your own pancakes!
Held in the professional kitchen, chemistry lab and tasting area at Schaub Hall, home of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences. Three stations – rotation Make your pancake Bring utensils, pan B ingredients provided, C must provide all but milk and eggs. Triangle Sensory Testing Ingredient Chemistry and Viscosity SO Coaches Institute 2010

15 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Density Measure of mass per unit volume Expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3), grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) dependent on temperature and pressure (PV=nRT) Solids - may use ruler and geometry to figure out volume of sample, then weigh to find mass. Liquids- Place a known volume of liquid on a balance measure in graduated cylinder, pipet, etc. SO Coaches Institute 2010

16 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Cx(H2O)y carbon along with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water Basic unit – monosaccharide Multiple units – disaccharide (2) trisaccharide (3) oligosaccharide (2-10) polysaccharide (>10) SO Coaches Institute 2010

17 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Carbohydrates Sugars Monosaccharides Glucose, Fructose Disaccharides Lactose (glucose and galactose) -milk Maltose (glucose and glucose) - Sucrose (glucose and fructose –table sugar) SO Coaches Institute 2010

18 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Examples: starch - glucose polymers, found in plants cellulose –found in plant fibers, insoluble Pectin-units are sugar acids rather than simple sugars, found in vegetables and fruits Branched vs. linear Starches are a mixture of branched (amylopectin) and linear (amylose) polysaccharides SO Coaches Institute 2010

19 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Carbohydrates Reducing sugars Examples: glucose, lactose, fructose Non-reducing sugar contains no hemiacetal groups. Example: sucrose SO Coaches Institute 2010

20 Tests for carbohydrates
Tasks and Laboratory Experiments Tests for carbohydrates Benedicts test for sugars Iodine test for starch Positive reaction SO Coaches Institute 2010

21 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Benedict’s Test The Benedict's test allows us to detect the presence of reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group).  All monosaccharides are reducing sugars.  Some disaccharides are also reducing sugars.  Other disaccharides such as sucrose are non-reducing sugars and will not react with Benedict's solution.  Starches are also non-reducing sugars.  The copper sulfate (CuSO4) present in Benedict's solution reacts with electrons from the reducing sugar to form cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a red-brown precipitate. The final color of the solution depends on how much of this precipitate was formed, and therefore the color gives an indication of how much reducing sugar was present if a quantitative reagent was used. With increasing amounts of reducing sugar the result will be: green yellow orange red SO Coaches Institute 2010

22 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Iodine Test The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch. Iodine solution – Iodine is dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide - reacts with starch producing a deep blue-black color. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_test" SO Coaches Institute 2010

23 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Lipids Present as fats extracted from plants or animals (butter, vegetable oil) or as constituents of food (chocolate) Contributions to foods: texture and flavor Contain only Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen SO Coaches Institute 2010

24 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Lipids Most common form for lipid in foods is as a triglyceride What difference in texture would you see substituting vegetable shortening or vegetable oil for butter in the formulation? SO Coaches Institute 2010

25 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Lipids Brown Bag Test SO Coaches Institute 2010

26 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Lipids Conversion between solid structure to a liquid state is called the melting point How would changing the melting point of the lipid used change the cookie texture? SO Coaches Institute 2010

27 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Proteins Proteins are made up of amino acids essential and nonessential Contains Nitrogen Protein can be found in the flour, egg and milk as well as other ingredients. SO Coaches Institute 2010

28 Tasks and Laboratory Experiments
Proteins Biuret Test The Biuret Reagent is made of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate. The blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and the darker the purple color, the more protein is present. SO Coaches Institute 2010

29 Leavening agents Used to produce a gas that 'lightens' dough or batter. used to raise baked goods. water a leavening agent (pie crusts, some crackers) air incorporated into batter (angel and sponge cakes) expand when heated and cause the raising of the dough or batter when gas is trapped in matrix of gluten and starch from flour SO Coaches Institute 2010

30 Leavening agents Baking soda -NaHCO3
Needs moisture plus an acid source such as vinegar, citrus juice, sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, chocolate, cocoa (not Dutch-processed), honey, molasses (also brown sugar), fruits or maple syrup to react used to neutralize acids in foods around 4 times as strong as baking powder can cause soapy flavor in high amounts SO Coaches Institute 2010

31 Leavening agents Baking powder
NaHCO3 plus acidifier(s) and drying agent (usually an acid salt and cornstarch) can cause acidity and/or bitter off-flavor two acidifiers used in double acting to produce CO2 in two steps Reacts when moistened and also reacts when heated double-acting is the only commercial baking powder available today. SO Coaches Institute 2010

32 Viscosity The resistance of a fluid to deformation.
Temperature dependent *Dynamic or simple viscosity Kinematic viscosity ratio of viscosity:density Shear viscosity – reaction to a shearing stress (pumping, spraying, etc.) Must know general nomeclature SO Coaches Institute 2010

33 Viscotester 8 oz Styrofoam cup
Punch circular Hole in center of the bottom of the cup FROM THE INSIDE Place tape over hole Fill with liquid Use standard fluids to calibrate. SO Coaches Institute 2010

34 Time to play! Viscosity of liquids Production of viscotester
Standard Curve SO Coaches Institute 2010

35 Questions? E-mail specific questions ncsofoodscience@gmail.com
SO Coaches Institute 2010


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