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Food Science B&C Pancakes! Science Olympiad Science Olympiad Food Science Event 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Food Science B&C Pancakes! Science Olympiad Science Olympiad Food Science Event 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Science B&C Pancakes! Science Olympiad Science Olympiad Food Science Event 2011

2 SO Coaches Institute 2010 The Science of Pancakes How hard can it be to make the perfect pancake? It takes… How hard can it be to make the perfect pancake? It takes… The right Ingredients The right Ingredients The right Mixing technique The right Mixing technique Batter pouring or spreading technique Batter pouring or spreading technique Time to flip Time to flip Amount of Browning Amount of Browning

3 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Before your event Research! Understand the science first Research! Understand the science first Experiments – four mandatory Experiments – four mandatory Mixing method Mixing method Ingredient chemistry Ingredient chemistry Method to form perfectly round pancakes Method to form perfectly round pancakes Viscotester Production and Standard Curve Viscotester Production and Standard Curve

4 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Mixing Technique Incorporate ingredients Incorporate ingredients Hydrate dry ingredients Hydrate dry ingredients Experiment 1 explores the best method to mix the batter Experiment 1 explores the best method to mix the batter

5 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Ingredients The right ingredients The right ingredients Liquids…. Liquids…. Lipids Lipids Leavening agents Leavening agents Flours Flours Sweeteners Sweeteners Must understand WHY you are using the ingredient…what function does it provide? Must understand WHY you are using the ingredient…what function does it provide? Teams are limited to listed ingredients Teams are limited to listed ingredients

6 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Best technique for a perfectly round pancake? Pour, plop, spiral, spread….Experiment 3 Pour, plop, spiral, spread….Experiment 3 Viscosity of batter is important Viscosity of batter is important Don’t want a pattern on the pancake. Don’t want a pattern on the pancake. May NOT use any aid to enclose batter (ring or wires) and may not trim the final pancake (we can tell by looking at the edges….) May NOT use any aid to enclose batter (ring or wires) and may not trim the final pancake (we can tell by looking at the edges….) NO!

7 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Notebooks Notebook keeping Notebook keeping 40% of Regional score 40% of Regional score All experimental data and documentation must be recorded in notebook All experimental data and documentation must be recorded in notebook May be bound, spiral, or ring May be bound, spiral, or ring Must securely hold all items Must securely hold all items Don’t erase in lab notebook! Don’t erase in lab notebook! Document all references Document all references See Example Notebooks See Example Notebooks

8 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Notebooks First page – School and Student Names First page – School and Student Names Second Page – Table of Contents Second Page – Table of Contents Third Page and Following – Experiments Third Page and Following – Experiments Each experiment must have: Each experiment must have: Experiment Name Experiment Name Hypothesis Hypothesis Variables (controlled, independent; dependent) Variables (controlled, independent; dependent) Materials Materials Procedure Procedure Qualitative and Quantitative Observations Qualitative and Quantitative Observations Discussion of Results Discussion of Results

9 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Pancake judging In clear plastic bag, frozen or thawed. In clear plastic bag, frozen or thawed. Judged on roundness Judged on roundness

10 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Sensory Testing Tasting! Tasting! Two types of test Two types of test Sensory Analysis (State Tournament) Sensory Analysis (State Tournament) Score attributes of sample, add up score, high score best sample Score attributes of sample, add up score, high score best sample Triangle Sensory Test (Experiment 2) Triangle Sensory Test (Experiment 2) Two samples at a time. Used to see if difference in samples is discernable or to identify good “tasters”. Two samples at a time. Used to see if difference in samples is discernable or to identify good “tasters”.

11 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Sensory Analysis Ballot can be used during trials to find best sample to take to State event and to analyze taste and texture of samples. Ballot can be used during trials to find best sample to take to State event and to analyze taste and texture of samples. Judges will use this form at State event to taste your pancakes Judges will use this form at State event to taste your pancakes

12 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Triangle sensory test Two samples…three pieces Two samples…three pieces Two same, one different Two same, one different Try to pick samples that are same size, color Try to pick samples that are same size, color Three random three-digit numbers for sample numbers. Three random three-digit numbers for sample numbers. May blindfold taster to minimize sight differences. Hand the taster the pieces and tell them the number of the sample. May blindfold taster to minimize sight differences. Hand the taster the pieces and tell them the number of the sample. Oreo Example Oreo Example

13 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Day of Event Notebook (containing label) checked in by 9:00 am Notebook (containing label) checked in by 9:00 am Bring frozen pancake to event (Regional). Bring frozen pancake to event (Regional). 3 stations – 3 stations – Pancake roundness Pancake roundness Ingredient chemistry Ingredient chemistry Viscosity determination Viscosity determination

14 SO Coaches Institute 2010 State events Make your own pancakes! Make your own pancakes! Held in the professional kitchen, chemistry lab and tasting area at Schaub Hall, home of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences. Held in the professional kitchen, chemistry lab and tasting area at Schaub Hall, home of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences. Three stations – rotation Three stations – rotation Make your pancake Make your pancake Bring utensils, pan Bring utensils, pan B ingredients provided, C must provide all but milk and eggs. B ingredients provided, C must provide all but milk and eggs. Triangle Sensory Testing Triangle Sensory Testing Ingredient Chemistry and Viscosity Ingredient Chemistry and Viscosity

15 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Density Measure of mass per unit volume Measure of mass per unit volume Expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m 3 ), grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm 3 ) dependent on temperature and pressure (PV=nRT) Solids - may use ruler and geometry to figure out volume of sample, then weigh to find mass. Solids - may use ruler and geometry to figure out volume of sample, then weigh to find mass. Liquids- Place a known volume of liquid on a balance measure in graduated cylinder, pipet, etc. Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

16 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Carbohydrates C x (H 2 O) y carbon along with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water C x (H 2 O) y carbon along with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water Basic unit – monosaccharide Basic unit – monosaccharide Multiple units – Multiple units – disaccharide (2) disaccharide (2) trisaccharide (3) trisaccharide (3) oligosaccharide (2-10) oligosaccharide (2-10) polysaccharide (>10) polysaccharide (>10) Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

17 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Carbohydrates Sugars Sugars Monosaccharides Monosaccharides Glucose, Fructose Glucose, Fructose Disaccharides Disaccharides Lactose (glucose and galactose) -milk Lactose (glucose and galactose) -milk Maltose (glucose and glucose) - Maltose (glucose and glucose) - Sucrose (glucose and fructose –table sugar) Sucrose (glucose and fructose –table sugar) Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

18 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Examples: Examples: starch - glucose polymers, found in plants starch - glucose polymers, found in plants cellulose –found in plant fibers, insoluble cellulose –found in plant fibers, insoluble Pectin-units are sugar acids rather than simple sugars, found in vegetables and fruits Pectin-units are sugar acids rather than simple sugars, found in vegetables and fruits Branched vs. linear Branched vs. linear Starches are a mixture of branched (amylopectin) and linear (amylose) polysaccharides Starches are a mixture of branched (amylopectin) and linear (amylose) polysaccharides Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

19 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Carbohydrates Reducing sugars Reducing sugars Examples: glucose, lactose, fructose Examples: glucose, lactose, fructose Non-reducing sugar contains no hemiacetal groups. Non-reducing sugar contains no hemiacetal groups. Example: sucrose Example: sucrose Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

20 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Tests for carbohydrates Benedicts test for sugars Benedicts test for sugars Iodine test for starch Iodine test for starch Positive reaction Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

21 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Benedict’s Test The Benedict's test allows us to detect the presence of reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group). All monosaccharides are reducing sugars. Some disaccharides are also reducing sugars. Other disaccharides such as sucrose are non-reducing sugars and will not react with Benedict's solution. Starches are also non-reducing sugars. The copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) present in Benedict's solution reacts with electrons from the reducing sugar to form cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a red- brown precipitate. The final color of the solution depends on how much of this precipitate was formed, and therefore the color gives an indication of how much reducing sugar was present if a quantitative reagent was used. With increasing amounts of reducing sugar the result will be: green yellow orange red Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

22 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Iodine Test The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch. The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch. Iodine solution – Iodine is dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide - reacts with starch producing a deep blue-black color. Iodine solution – Iodine is dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide - reacts with starch producing a deep blue-black color. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_test" Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_test"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine_test Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

23 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Lipids Present as fats extracted from plants or animals (butter, vegetable oil) or as constituents of food (chocolate) Present as fats extracted from plants or animals (butter, vegetable oil) or as constituents of food (chocolate) Contributions to foods: texture and flavor Contributions to foods: texture and flavor Contain only Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Contain only Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

24 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Lipids Most common form for lipid in foods is as a triglyceride Most common form for lipid in foods is as a triglyceride What difference in texture would you see substituting vegetable shortening or vegetable oil for butter in the formulation? What difference in texture would you see substituting vegetable shortening or vegetable oil for butter in the formulation? baking/ baking/ Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

25 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Lipids Brown Bag Test Brown Bag Test Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

26 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Lipids Conversion between solid structure to a liquid state is called the melting point Conversion between solid structure to a liquid state is called the melting point How would changing the melting point of the lipid used change the cookie texture? How would changing the melting point of the lipid used change the cookie texture? Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

27 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Proteins Proteins are made up of amino acids Proteins are made up of amino acids essential and nonessential essential and nonessential Contains Nitrogen Contains Nitrogen Protein can be found in the flour, egg and milk as well as other ingredients. Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

28 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Proteins Biuret Test Biuret Test The Biuret Reagent is made of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate. The blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and the darker the purple color, the more protein is present. The Biuret Reagent is made of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate. The blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and the darker the purple color, the more protein is present. Tasks and Laboratory Experiments

29 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Leavening agents Used to produce a gas that 'lightens' dough or batter. Used to produce a gas that 'lightens' dough or batter. used to raise baked goods. used to raise baked goods. water a leavening agent (pie crusts, some crackers) water a leavening agent (pie crusts, some crackers) air incorporated into batter (angel and sponge cakes) air incorporated into batter (angel and sponge cakes) expand when heated and cause the raising of the dough or batter when gas is trapped in matrix of gluten and starch from flour expand when heated and cause the raising of the dough or batter when gas is trapped in matrix of gluten and starch from flour

30 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Leavening agents Baking soda Baking soda -NaHCO3 -NaHCO3 Needs moisture plus an acid source such as vinegar, citrus juice, sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, chocolate, cocoa (not Dutch-processed), honey, molasses (also brown sugar), fruits or maple syrup to react Needs moisture plus an acid source such as vinegar, citrus juice, sour cream, yogurt, buttermilk, chocolate, cocoa (not Dutch-processed), honey, molasses (also brown sugar), fruits or maple syrup to react used to neutralize acids in foods used to neutralize acids in foods around 4 times as strong as baking powder around 4 times as strong as baking powder can cause soapy flavor in high amounts can cause soapy flavor in high amounts

31 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Leavening agents Baking powder Baking powder NaHCO3 plus acidifier(s) and drying agent (usually an acid salt and cornstarch) NaHCO3 plus acidifier(s) and drying agent (usually an acid salt and cornstarch) can cause acidity and/or bitter off-flavor can cause acidity and/or bitter off-flavor two acidifiers used in double acting to produce CO2 in two steps two acidifiers used in double acting to produce CO2 in two steps Reacts when moistened and also reacts when heated Reacts when moistened and also reacts when heated double-acting is the only commercial baking powder available today. double-acting is the only commercial baking powder available today.

32 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Viscosity The resistance of a fluid to deformation. The resistance of a fluid to deformation. Temperature dependent Temperature dependent *Dynamic or simple viscosity *Dynamic or simple viscosity Kinematic viscosity ratio of viscosity:density Kinematic viscosity ratio of viscosity:density Shear viscosity – reaction to a shearing stress (pumping, spraying, etc.) Shear viscosity – reaction to a shearing stress (pumping, spraying, etc.) Must know general nomeclature Must know general nomeclature

33 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Viscotester 8 oz Styrofoam cup 8 oz Styrofoam cup Punch circular Hole in center of the bottom of the cup FROM THE INSIDE Punch circular Hole in center of the bottom of the cup FROM THE INSIDE Place tape over hole Place tape over hole Fill with liquid Fill with liquid Use standard fluids to calibrate. Use standard fluids to calibrate.

34 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Time to play! Viscosity of liquids Viscosity of liquids Production of viscotester Production of viscotester Standard Curve Standard Curve

35 SO Coaches Institute 2010 Questions? specific questions specific questions


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