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Using Plants in the Landscape

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1 Using Plants in the Landscape
Section 7

2 Annual Bedding Plants Unit 25

3 Objectives Identify four uses of annual flowers
Design a bed layout using annual flowers Explain the steps in preparing the soil for annual flowers List the six steps in the aftercare of annual flowers Demonstrate proper transplanting techniques for annual flowers

4 General Info Annuals are plants that complete their life cycle in 1 year Starts from seeds, grows blooms, sets seed, and dies in 1 season Flowering plants are more often used in landscapes The market for annual bedding plants has grown in the last 10 years

5 Flowering Annuals Create a colorful landscape
Figure 25-2 Flowering annuals are used to… Provide a mass of color around a house foundation in flower beds, or in front of evergreens Fill spaces between shrub plantings or other perennials and give color when these plants are not blooming Provide color in bulb beds after the bulbs have bloomed Supply cut flowers Plant along fences or walks Create seasonal color

6 Selecting Flowering Annuals
First consider the purpose of the plant and where it is to be planted Consider height Select plants w/ colors that will blend in well with one another

7 Planting Hanging Baskets
Baskets range from 4 to 14 inches Must have adequate drainage holes Plant 1 less plant than the size of pot Ex. In an 8” pot, plant 6 annuals around the outside of the basket and 1 in the center

8 Planning and Designing a Flower Bed
Flower beds range in size and design according to individual needs and preferences Figure 25-6

9 Preparing the Soil Prepare soil in the fall
Don’t let bed dry out completely when dug Before preparing new beds, test the soil for drainage Dig a 10” hole and fill it w/ water; fill again the 2nd day, if all water is not gone w/in 10 hrs on the 2nd day, drainage is a problem

10 Seeding Most annuals are seeded indoors
Plants are set outside in the flower bed as soon as the danger of frost has passed Plants that can be seeded outdoors should be sown as early in spring as possible Soil should be 60 degrees before setting plants outdoors Plant seedlings at about the same depth as they were in starting container

11 Perennials, Ornamentals Grass, Vines, Bamboo, and Prairie Gardens
Unit 26

12 Perennials Perennials are plants that live from year to year and do not require replanting Some bloom in 1st year but most produce larger more attractive flowers and develop stronger root systems Demand for perennials has expanded due to the growing public interest in gardening and landscaping and desire for plants that come back every year

13 Perennial Beds and Location
Bed should 1st be designed on paper to fit the garden area Guidelines: p. 276 Use and island bed w/ an informal-shaped border, surrounded with a lawn area Use a perennial border planted along a fence or property line as a divider Be sure to consider all factors; soil, light, and view

14 Selection Should be selected by personal preference, color scheme, texture, shape, growth habit and the microclimate of the area Ask advice from a professional Mass plants in groups of 3, 5, 9, or more for a full appearance

15 Designing a Perennial Garden
Consider; Soil, time of blooming, and space Have a plant list including the colors and varieties best suited

16 Soil Prep and Fertilizing
Perennials live in the same soil for years so soil prep is important Organic matter and drainage are important Fertilizer should be dug in at 1 foot deep

17 Mulching Creates aesthetics that enhance the perennials
Source of organic matter Helps control weeds Conserves moisture Promotes even ground temps

18 Ornamental grasses Excellent for use as accents and make attractive edging

19 Vines Used to mask various landscape features and create a flowing effect throughout the garden Soften the appearance of walls, fences, porches, etc. Effective where space is limited

20 Prairie Gardening Natives, annuals, biennials and perennials are used
Prairie Plants are grown informally in a meadow environment Attract butterflies, songbirds and other wildlife Special seed mixes are available

21 Narrowleaf Evergreens
Unit 27

22 Objectives Identify and plant narrowleaf evergreens in the landscape
Differentiate between the 2 types of narrowleaf evergreen leaves List 4 reasons for using narrowleaf evergreens in the landscape Describe the primary purpose of a lath house Describe the proper fertilizer practices for narrowleaf evergreens Demonstrate the proper procedure for planting narrowleaf evergreens Calculate fertilizer’s 3 active ingredients of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium

23 General Info Narrowleaf Evergreens are a popular landscape plant because they remain green year-round Adaptable to various soil types and weather Leaves can be needlelike or scale like

24 Uses Standard choice for foundation plantings because of year-round green foliage Also boundary plants to accent borderlines of property Also used to screen a view of a less attractive area or Control air currents

25 Care Narrowleaf evergreens are grown in nurseries
They are shipped 3 diff. Ways Bare root (BR) Shipped while seedlings Balled and Burlapped (B&B) May be moved at almost any time of the year, except when plant has shoots or few growth or when ground is frozen As Container Stock (C) To maintain healthy plants, they should be watered regularly and stored in a lath house Lath house gives protection from sun to control transpiration

26 Planting Balled and Burlapped Plants
Holes should be 1 ½ to 2 times as large as the ball of soil Ball of tree is set 1” above soil line Add prepared soil in and around the root ball until covered When hole is 2/3 filled w/ soil, fill it w/ water and let it soak Finish filling the hole

27 Planting containerized trees
Planted the same as balled and burlapped trees except… 1) Container is removed from tree roots 2) after container is removed, check if the roots are pot-bound, if yes, it is necessary to cut the roots to encourage growth Pot-bound: the root ball will be excessively tight

28 Staking Staking evergreens is important because it gives the tree needed support to allow the root system to become established A 10’ tree should be staked using 2- 5’-6’ stakes that can stay in the ground for 2 years

29 Fertilizing Fertilize 3-6 pounds of per 100 square ft placed in a circle under the drip line at the outer end of the branches Do so before new growth starts in the spring After applying fertilizer, water w/ a garden hose sprinkler

30 Watering Need to be watered every 10 to 14 days during the 1st year

31 Pruning Pruning individual branches give a natural informal appearance
Shearing is done as when shaping a hedge Ends of all small branches are clipped to shape the edges of the plant in straight lines

32 Characteristics Listed on Landscaping Lists
Trees on lists are listed according to height Hardiness – Indicates where plant can be grown in the US Foliage color – color of the plant Vary from light to dark green Period of interest – time of year which plant is most attractive

33 List (cont’) Landscape use – indicates how a particular plant is used in the landscape Ground cover – refers to plants that are used to cover the ground (prevent erosion) Foundation planting – refers to plants that are used around buildings to help accent the buildings Rock Garden – refers to plants used in gardens in a rocky environment Specimen plants – refer to plants that are used alone for their own beauty Screen plant an hedges – refer to plants that confine certain areas

34 Broadleaf Evergreens Unit 28

35 Objectives To identify the cultural requirements, planting techniques, care, and uses of broadleaf evergreens in the landscape List 4 ways in which broadleaf evergreens are used in the landscape List 4 cultural requirements of broadleaf evergreens Describe the soil and fertilizer requirements of broadleaf evergreens Explain the procedure for transplanting broadleaf evergreens List 3 pests that attack broadleaf evergreens and 1 control for each

36 Description Evergreen plants (hold leaves all year) with broad leaves rather than needlelike

37 Uses of Broadleaf Evergreens
Around foundations Smaller-leaved evergreens As Specimen plants Individual plant, not massed As hedges Along Sidewalks Lead the way to a home entrance In woodland plantings

38 Cultural requirements
Ample moisture Organic matter holds moisture Good soil drainage Planting can be raised above soil level Mulching Hold proper supply of moisture Frozen soil cannot allow roots to pick up moisture

39 Cultural Requirements (Cont’)
A location that is sheltered from strong winds Cold winds and winter sun do the most damage by removing moisture Enough Sunlight Plants grow tall and leggy w/ too much shade If plants do not flower well, they are probably getting too much shade

40 Soil and Fertilizer Any good loam soil is satisfactory for most broadleaf evergreens Acidic soil is best Use fertilizer in small amounts Add fertilizer in the spring

41 Transplanting Roots must always be in close contact with moist soil
Evergreens are moved with the root ball Soil is left intact around the roots and moved with the plant 12-18 inches should be spaced around the root ball Planted at same depth or higher than were growing before No soil on top of root ball Do not pack the soil but water gently

42 Pruning May be pruned for special effect or cut back to thicken the plant Done in early spring or just after blooming

43 Insects and Diseases Insects are rarely a problem
Fungus diseases cause the most damage Use a spreader sticker to apply all sprays Chemical added to a pesticide that causes the spray to break into small droplets and spread evenly

44 Deciduous Trees Unit 29

45 Objectives To properly position and plant deciduous trees in the landscape List the 6 functions of trees in the landscape Select at least 2 specific trees to fulfill each of these six functions demonstrate the proper planting technique for bare root, balled and burlapped, and containerized trees

46 Uses of Trees in the Landscape
Usually serve a specific purpose in the landscape To provide shade – keep temps inside houses cooler in summer and provide outdoor shade Can reduce summer indoor temps as much as 20 degrees To frame the house – make the house the center of attention To soften lines – placed at the back of a home

47 Cont’ Ro relieve bare spots – end walls of houses
To screen an object – block the view of an object To frame a view – tall trees w/ underplantings or small trees To ensure privacy – To accent the landscape – flowering trees To break monotony – should be placed off center as to not make it appear cut in half As windbreaks – tall evergreens

48 Tree Types Figure 29-11 lists deciduous trees
Grouped according to height Classified according to characteristics Form, Flowering, Color, Texture, How to propagate, Height, Hardiness, and Ornamental use

49 Classification Form – shape of the tree
Flowering and Color – if and when tree flowers and color of the blossoms Texture – size of the leaves Large leaves – coarse texture/creates boldness Small leaves – fine texture/ refinement How to propagate – way a tree is reproduced

50 Classifications (cont’)
Height – average height the tree grows Hardiness – ability of the tree to live in a particular climate zone Influenced by temp, rainfall, and soil Ornamental use – common uses of the tree in the landscape

51 Purchasing Deciduous Trees
Trees can be purchased in 3 forms Bare Root (BR) Balled and Burlapped (B&B) Containerized (C)

52 Fertilizing Slow release fertilizer is recommended
Otherwise drill holes around the drip line of the tree and apply directly into the holes then fill the holes

53 Mulching Needed for moisture retention, weed control, supplying organic matter, and moderating temp Also improves the aesthetics of the area Keep mulch away from tree trunk Apply mulch 2/3 the distance from tree trunk to drip line

54 Aftercare Water during dry conditions especially during 1st year
Never less than 1” of water at a time Sufficient for 1 week

55 Deciduous Shrubs Unit 30

56 Objective To select, use, and care for deciduous shrubs
Identify at least 5 deciduous shrubs List at least 2 uses of deciduous shrubs in the landscape Explain the 3 ways deciduous shrubs are purchased Outline the planting procedure for deciduous shrubs

57 Uses in the Landscape Deciduous Shrubs are used widely in the landscape to form borders, screens, background plantings, and foundation plantings Selected for effects created by flower color, form, fruit, color and shape of stem, and color and height of foliage

58 Factors to Consider Period of Interest Foliage Height Hardiness
Time of year which plant materials create the most interest in the landscape Foliage Height Hardiness Low minimum temperature the plant can endure

59 Purchasing Plants BR B&B C

60 Planting time Best time to plant BR is when in dormant stage
B&B and C may be transplanted any time during the growing season – usually fall or early spring

61 Planting Site Well-drained soil
Site is important since deciduous shrubs are long-lived plants May be fertilized in the spring Holes for B&B and C plants should be 3 times larger in diameter than root balls

62 Care of the plant Bacteria and Fungi cause the most diseases
Pruning is used to thin out old or dead wood, to shade plants, and control plant size

63 Rules for Pruning Shrubs that bloom on wood grown the previous season should be pruned immediately after flowering Bloom on current year’s growth pruned in fall or early spring Some shrubs require annual pruning to thin out old wood If shoots or suckers are sent up from roots or base some of them should be removed so growth doesn’t become too thick

64 Ground Covers Unit 31

65 Definition Ground Covers are low-growing plants that cover the ground in place of turf Fill in bare spots in landscapes Help prevent erosion Fill in shady areas under trees

66 Types of Ground Covers 3 types
Broadleaf evergreens – retain leaves year-round Deciduous plants – lose leaves Narrowleaf evergreens – needlelike leaves that retain color year-round

67 Uses Can be used in areas where soil is not suitable for grass
Also used for beauty they contribute Make great foreground plantings Also used between evergreens to keep soil cool and shade roots or other plants

68 Questions before Selection
In what type of soil does the plant grow best? Is it suitable for the locality? How is it propagated? How long will it take for the plants to cover the area in which they are planted? What is the mature height of the plant? Are diseases and insects a problem? How expensive are the plants?

69 Planting Ground Covers
Spaced according to size, growth rate, and time allowed for plants to spread

70 Caring for Ground Covers: Fertilizing
Fertilizer should be applied only as needed to keep plant healthy Can be applied as a dry granular fertilizer or a soluble fertilizer

71 Pruning Necessary only to confine the plant to the area it is desired

72 Watering Water as needed during the 1st year
Anytime the soil becomes dry or plants start to wilt, apply at least 1 inch of water

73 Controlling Insects and Diseases
Rarely a serious problem

74 Bulbs Unit 32

75 Objectives List 4 uses of bulbs in the landscape
Describe the soil and fertilizer used in the flowering of bulbs Explain how planting depth and spacing of bulbs are determined Describe how to care for bulbs after they have flowered List the steps in the forcing of bulbs

76 Bulbs Word used to refer to bulbs, corms, tubers, and rhizomes
All are structures containing an embryonic plant and the necessary stored food for plant growth

77 Uses Of Bulbs in the Landscape
Bulbs are most striking when they form a massing (grouping of color) Not attractive in thin rows In wooded areas – bulbs grow well Some grow well w/ evergreen groundcover

78 More Uses Rock gardens are excellent places t use flowering bulbs
Using color masses throughout the garden accents the areas in which they are planted Flowering bulbs are used to add color around evergreen shrubs Also used as cut flowers

79 Soils Bulbs grow well in well-drained loamy soils
Soil should be a neutral pH (6.0)

80 Planting Bulbs Some are planted in the fall and some in the spring
Each bulb has a recommended planting depth and spacing Showy bed = bulbs closer spacing Bulbs are usually placed the same distance apart as the planting depth

81 Fertilizing Bulbs Fertilized when planted by digging fertilizer into bottom of the bed Cover w/ 1” of soil before planting After planting and covering w/ 2” of soil, use special bulb food and then cover completely Each spring a light application of complete bulb food (N-P-K) should be added 5 pounds of per 100 square feet

82 Care After Flowering Bulbs should be dug up, thinned and replanted occasionally Some are done annually, other 3-5 years When digging, use a nursery spade to gently remove the bulb & store at 50 degrees in a dim light Dust w/ a pesticide to prevent insects, rodents, and diseases

83 Forcing Bulbs Forcing plants to flower at other than their normal season Identify bulbs to use for forcing - select large bulbs Select a well-drained potting medium high in organic matter Place drainage material in the bottom of the pot Place a layer of the medium in the pot, set the bulb in and fill in around the bulb with the growing medium so top is exposed

84 Forcing Bulbs (cont’) Water by setting the pot in a pan of water
Be sure to label the pot correctly Set the planted pot outside in a cold frame at a temp. of 50 from Nov 25 until Jan 15 Remove the pot from the cold frame and place in the greenhouse - check for root development Tulips bloom 5 weeks from removal from cold frame. Other plants may require more or less time

85 More on Bulbs Always plant bulbs at the depth prescribed
Never plant in shallow soil Always plant in a well-drained soil Provide protection from mice All bulbs have planting instructions supplied – be sure to follow directions

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