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Work-integrated learning: a good practice guide Penelope Engel-Hills (Dept of Nursing &Radiography, Cape Peninsula University of Technology) James Garraway.

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Presentation on theme: "Work-integrated learning: a good practice guide Penelope Engel-Hills (Dept of Nursing &Radiography, Cape Peninsula University of Technology) James Garraway."— Presentation transcript:

1 Work-integrated learning: a good practice guide Penelope Engel-Hills (Dept of Nursing &Radiography, Cape Peninsula University of Technology) James Garraway (Fundani CHED, Cape Peninsula University of Technology) Cecilia Jacobs (Centre for Teaching & Learning, Stellenbosch University) Chris Winberg (Fundani CHED, Cape Peninsula University of Technology)

2 Overview of workshop 1.Introduction to the WIL: a good practice guide 2.Professional knowledge, curriculum, and WIL 3.Case studies of WIL o Case study 1: radiography o Case study 2: chemistry 4. Sharing ideas 5. Panel discussion o ICTs and social media in WIL o Integrated assessment tasks o Assessment panels in the health sciences o Researching WIL

3 1. Introduction to WIL: a good practice guide o Definitions o The changing Higher Education context o Implications for work-integrated learning

4 Definitions action-learning, apprenticeships, capstone programme, cooperative education, experiential learning, inquiry learning, inter-professional learning, practicum placements, problembased learning, project-based learning, sandwich course, scenario learning, service-learning, simulated learning, team-based learning, virtual learning, work-based learning, work experience, work placements, workplace learning, etc. Work-integrated learning is an umbrella term that describes curricular, pedagogic and assessment approaches and practices, across a range of academic disciplines that integrate formal learning and workplace concerns.

5 Definitions/cont Professional education/professionally-oriented education includes traditional professional programmes (e.g., architecture, law and medicine), new or emerging professions (e.g., mechatronics, software engineering, reconfigurable computing, robotics, and cellular technology) as well as career-focused programmes such as tourism, business informatics, and media studies. In the interests of brevity (and because many of these programmes have common features) we to all advanced technical, advanced vocational, new and traditional professional programmes as professional education.

6 The changing HE context Green paper for post school education and training Jan 2012

7 Higher Certificate (120) Advanced Certificate (120) Diploma (360) Min Bachelors Degree (360) Min Advanced Diploma (120) Bachelors Degree (480) Min Postgraduate Diploma (120) Masters Degree (General and professional) (180) Min Bachelor Honours Degree (120) Doctoral Degree (General & Professional) (360) Min Postgraduate Undergraduate HEQF: November 2011 Diploma (240) Min Workplace learning (120)

8 HEQF Level descriptors (examples) Levels Conceptual challenge Problem solving Academic literacy Inde- pendence Level 8 (Hons) Professional: depth & specialisation Theorise & research Multiple texts (e.g., lit review) Independent work/near professional Level 7 (3 rd year) Advanced: breadth & depth Unfamiliar, abstract problems Academic discourse Less support Level 6 (2 nd year) Breadth & some depth Well defined, but unfamiliar problems Critically analyse, logical organisation Moderate support Level 5 (1 st year) Basic concepts; introductory Apply standard procedures Report clearlySupport

9 Implications for WIL….

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11 o Conceptual framework o Theoretical (or disciplinary) knowledge and practice-based (or situated) knowledge o Professional knowledge o Professional knowledge in the curriculum 2. Professional knowledge, curriculum, and WIL

12 Practice (aka situated knowledge) Theory (aka disciplinary knowledge)

13 ? The world of higher education: academic study, disciplines, subjects, assessments, qualifications… The world of professional practice: work, payment, employment clients, patients, colleagues, partners…

14 Knowledge bases: professional practice Procedural situated knowledge Principled situated knowledge Applied disciplinary knowledge Pure disciplinary knowledge

15 WIL can bring the two worlds closer… THE WORLD OF HIGHER EDUCATION A range of curricular, pedagogic (teaching and learning) and assessment practices can bring the world of higher education and the world of work/professional practice closer together. THE WORLD OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Academic study, disciplines, subjects, assessments, qualification… Work, payment, employment clients, patients, colleagues, partners…

16 Some arrangements for WIL TYPESTheoreticalProblem-basedProject-basedPractical KEY TERMSLecture, tutorial, Lab/demo Real world, Integrated, Discovery learning, Self-directed learning Job- shadowing, Capstone projects In-service Work placements, Internship, sandwich. ACTIVITIESGuest lecturers (e.g., from industry), Work simulated problems, tasks & texts, Case studies Site visits, Fieldwork, Interviews, Service Learning, projects. Learning contracts, Log books, Learning logs, Journals, Mentoring, SITESClassroom, Laboratory, Studio, Website Classroom, lab, etc – group work Classroom & workplace Workplace

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18 3.Case studies of WIL o Learning from a radiography programme o Learning from a chemistry programme

19 Project-based learning in Finnish U of T. (Case 16, p. 36) Students scanned a truck cab company for work processes. In consultation potential blockages were identified. Students in discussion with their peers and lecturers back at the university devised ways to remediate. Ideas presented to work for comment.

20 Assessing work-place projects: Connecting work practice and theory knowledge via portfolio (case 29, p.53) Students report on the identified work problem, steps to solve it, results and concluding comments; Knowledge gaps between work investigation and university identified; New learning and learning sources identified; Contribution to the workplace acknowledged.

21 Learning from a radiography programme

22 PRESENTATION OUTLINE Historic perspective of radiography Current preparation of radiography graduates in/for South Africa

23 History of Radiography in South Africa X-rays (1896) Anglo-Boer War ( ) …became competent as radiographers by experimenting with x-ray apparatus… (JC de Villiers Healers Helpers and Hospitals, 2008)

24 Summary on Learning Knowledge from existing learning (engineers & photographers) applied to new workplace; Skills passed on through Apprenticeship model(artisan/trade training) with diluted theory.

25 History of Radiography: Continued 1940s – Radiography Courses Entry criteria Work as a radiographer (salary) On site theory (< 10%) Non-formal Work Assessment

26 History of Radiography: Continued 1960s – Hospital-based schools emerged (tutors) – Work and salary On site theory (25%) Formal Theory Assessment

27 History of Radiography: Continued 1970s – Radiography Courses Work as a radiographer (salary) On site theory (< 33%) Theory Assessed Work Assessed (no credit)

28 History of Radiography: Continued 1980s & 1990s – Shift from Hospital-based to HEIs – EDUCATION & TRAINING – Sent out for work experience (hours & service) – Theory (knowing) & Practice (doing) assessed – 1992: Clinical subject formalized workplace learning

29 History of Radiography: Continued 2000s – INTEGRATION & LEARNING – Work integrated into classroom – Theory integrated into practice – No salary for students – Shift to degrees for entry level professionals

30 -shaped practitioner Industry seeks T-shaped people, in which the down-stroke represents depth and specialist knowledge in a discipline and the cross-stroke represents breadth and flexibility. Report of a meeting sponsored by ESF with Science Magazine (Next Wave) and the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm in 2002

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32 4. Small group discussion 1) How might the WIL: a guide to good practice

33 Feedback Group 1 1.

34 5. Panel discussion o ICTs and social media in WIL o Integrated assessment tasks o Invited assessment panels o Researching WIL

35 ICTs and social media o Digital portfolios (for placement); o Facebook groups; o Blogs (Case study 20, pp 39-40); o Skype (supporting students in workplace learning); o Video diaries (for assessment) (Case study 22, pp 43-44).

36 Integrated assessment tasks o Case study 26 (p. 48); o Alignment with teaching and learning practice; o Alignment with workplace practice (e.g., project brief, clients, teams, industry assessment panels)

37 Assessment panels: WIL approaches making a difference to student learning Why a panel for integrated assessment in health sciences? Who? How?

38 New directions in researching WIL Quite a lot of research into general relationships but less on knowledge and contexts from students perspectives.

39 Work-integrated learning: bringing the two worlds closer… THE WORLD OF HIGHER EDUCATION A range of curricular, pedagogic (teaching and learning) and assessment practices can bring the world of higher education and the world of work/professional practice closer together. THE WORLD OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Academic study, disciplines, subjects, assessments, qualification… Work, payment, employment clients, patients, colleagues, partners…

40 Researching at the boundaries of theory and practice Researching WIL always means working at the boundaries between the university curriculum and work practices. So boundary crossing and/or transfer perspectives are often used.

41 Research into knowledge transfer &differences in moving from university to work Michael Eraut (2004). Transfer of knowledge between education and workplace settings. In H. Rainbird et al (Eds) Workplace Learning in Context. London: Routledge. ( ). Le Maistre, C &Pare, A. (2004). Learning in two communities: The challenge for universities and workplaces. Journal of Workplace Learning, 16 ( 1/2): Tuomi-Grohn, T. & Engestrom, Y (2003). Between School to Work. New Perspectives on Transfer and Boundary Crossing. Emerald Publishing. Teaching in Higher Education (2011), 16 (5). Special edition on Leaving the Academy.

42 Research and projects Miettinen, R. & Peisa, S. (1999). Integrating school-based learning with the study of change in working life: the alternative enterprise method. Journal of Education and work, 15 (3), Konkola, R., T. Tuomi-Gröhn, P. Lambert, and S. Ludvigsend Promoting learning and transfer between school and workplace. Journal of Education and Work 20, no. 3: 211–228Lori Breslow, James Garraway, Christine Winberg, Jennifer Wright, and Bridget Wyrley-Birch. (2005). Learning from Integrated Tasks in Mechanical Engineering. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Special Issue: McMillan, J. (2011). What happens when The university meets the community? Service learning, boundary and brokering. Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 16, No. 5..

43 Researching work-integrated learning: bringing the two worlds closer… THE WORLD OF HIGHER EDUCATION A range of curricular, pedagogic (teaching and learning) and assessment practices can bring the world of higher education and the world of work/professional practice closer together. THE WORLD OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Academic study, disciplines, subjects, assessments, qualification… Work, payment, employment clients, patients, colleagues, partners…

44 Researching at the boundaries of theory and practice Researching WIL always means working at the boundaries between the university curriculum and work practices. So boundary crossing and/or transfer perspectives are often used.

45 Kolb constructivist experiential learning cycle (e.g on a simulation, service learning project) o Often used in practice- based courses; o Simulation as concrete experience; o What did I observe? What does it mean? o What principles operate here? What have I learned? o How can I adapt the principles to new events? Problems: context and motivation; reflection as unproblematic, is itself a learning style, does not necessarily link education/practice, knowledge poor.

46 Communities of practice research Transitions from university to work involve a trajectory from one set of social practices to another set with different boundaries, activities and traditions; Concerned with developing professional identity, social practices Useful for examining PBL, PjBL and EL. Problems: learning and knowledge not well explicated Dahlgren, M. et al. (2006). From senior student to Novice worker. Studies in Higher Education, 31 (6):

47 o Expands on communities of practice; o Work and curriculum are always contradictory and hence developmental; o Zones of development in spaces; o Purpose-tool reversal. Activity system in activity theory Paré, A., and C. Le Maistre. (2006). Active learning in the workplace: transforming individuals and institutions. Journal of Education and Work 19, no. 4:

48 References for WIL Kolb learning cycle Lazarus, J. (2008). Service learning in the disciplines. Pretoria: CHE (July). Kolb, A and Kolb, D (2006). Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: A Review of the Multidisciplinary Application of Experiential Learning Theory in Higher Education. Sims, R., and Sims, S. (Eds).(2006). Learning styles and learning: A key to meeting the accountability demands in education. Nova Publishers ( available on google). Activity theory McMillan, J. (2011). What happens when the university meets the community? Service learning, boundary and brokering. Teaching in Higher Education: Special edition on Leaving the Academy, Vol. 16, No. 5. Paré, A., and C. Le Maistre. (2006). Active learning in the workplace: transforming individuals and institutions. Journal of Education and Work 19, no. 4: Teaching in Higher Education (2011). Special edition on Leaving the Academy, Vol. 16, No. 5. Miettinen, R. & Peisa, S. (1999). Integrating school-based learning with the study of change in working life: the alternative enterprise method. Journal of Education and work, 15 (3), Communities of practice and professional identity Dahlgren, M. et al. (2006). From senior student to novice worker. Studies in Higher Education, 31 (6):

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50 A model of professional knowledge Disciplinary Knowledge + Disciplinary knowledge - Situated knowledge - Situated knowledge + Pure disciplinary knowledge i.e., highly theoretical, low contextuality/applicability Applied disciplinary knowledge i.e., highly theoretical, highly applicable. Procedural situated knowledge i.e., low academic content; low contextual complexity Principled situated knowledge i.e., high contextual complexity

51 Example 1: BSc (Engineering) Electrical and Computer Engineering (576 credits) Pure disciplinary knowledge (15%) Applied disciplinary knowledge (48%) Principled situated knowledge (37%) Procedural situated knowledge (0%)

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53 Curtain University of Technology, 2012

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55 Example 2: BSc (Emergency Medical Care) (500 credits) Applied disciplinary knowledge ( 60%) Pure disciplinary knowledge (15%) Principled situated knowledge (13%) Procedural situated knowledge (12%)


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