4Formal educationFormal education refers to participation in education provided by the regular educationsystem with the aim to complete a qualification. Education leading to a qualificationaccording to the regular education system is arranged in the following educationalinstitutions: comprehensive schools, upper secondary schools, vocational schools andcolleges, polytechnics and universities. Education leading to a vocational qualificationcan also be arranged in apprenticeship training and in folk high schools and sportsinstitutes.Vocational collegeafter basic education (students between 16 – 21 years old) 3 yearsafter general upper secondary school (students up to 18/19 years old) 2 yearsVocational education and training centres (for young and/or adult students)Adult education centres (students from 20 years, some work experience)Polytechnics (after basic vocational education)In Finland there are no national levels for Vocational Qualifications (NQF).
5Non-formal educationNon-formal education refers to participation in course-form, other thaneducation and training leading to a qualification according to theregular education system. Examples of course training are in-servicetraining arranged and sponsored by the employer, hobby andlanguages courses at adult education centres, vocational furthereducation courses, driving school, dance school, etc.Accreditation; In general, accreditation means that a student can substitute some or all studies included in the currently performed qualification by studies, work experience or practical training. In the Finnish legislation the accreditation appears to be partly a subjective right of the student.Recognition and validation of prior learning by adult studentsStructure of adult vocational qualification system is based mostly on non-formal learning idea. Nonetheless 95 % of the candidates taking the tests choose to prepare themselves for the examinations by undertaking some formal training.
6Informal learningInformal learning is activity practised for the purpose of learning, which is lessorganised and structured than other education. Informal learning is notinstitutionalised, in other words, not the responsibility of any organisation. It hasno student-teacher arrangement, timetables or entrance requirements.Informal learning can take place almost anywhere irrespective of place; amongfamily or friends, at workplace or in everyday life. Informal learning can beself steered or take place under the guidance of family or some other socialcontext.*Official recognition of prior learning acquired in different ways (by adult students)*Independent of the way the competence is acquired*Accreditation (a student can substitute some or all studies included in the currentlyperformed qualification by studies, work experience or practical training)
7VET IN FINLAND Finnish National Board of Education Qualifications, study programs and modules of the qualificationthe vocational skills required in the qualificationthe assessment criteriaVocational Qualification, (120 credits)The basic skills of the professionFurther Qualification for adults, (40 credits)Skilled worker, professional in the fieldSpecialist Qualification for adults, (40 credits)The most demanding tasks in the fieldAt present, there are 358 qualifications52 vocational qualifications divided into 113 study programmes183 of them further vocational qualifications123 specialist vocational qualifications
8Structure of VET studies in Finland 90 credits of vocational studies (Common vocational studies of the qualification, specialist vocational studies of each study programme)including at least 20 credits of on-the-job learning10 credits of free-choice studies20 credits of core subjects(Compulsory 16 credits in all vocational studies are: the mother tongue, second national language, a foreign language, mathematics, physics and chemistry, social studies, entrepreneurship and workplace studies, physical and health education, arts and cultural studies)(Elective 4 credits Environmental studies, Information and communications technology, Ethics, Other cultures, Psychology, Entrepreneurship)
9Local and international qualification standards that are applied Level of the qualification (in the awardingcountry) Level 3 of the EC classification Upper secondary level, ISCED 3EuropassCertificate supplement*NQF (EQF?) basic qualification = level 4
10National Certificate of Language Proficiency National Certificate of Language Proficiency is a test aimed at adults tomeasure their practical language skills regardless of how and where theirlinguistic proficiency has been acquired. The tests measure language skills inpractical situations in which an adult could be required to speak, listen, write orread a foreign language.The Act on language tests was passed in 1994 and the first national certificatesof language proficiency were granted in the same year.Some 22,000 people had been granted a Certificate by the end of 2003.The test can now be taken in 9 different languages and there are over 100educational institutions arranging tests.Europass Language Passport
11EQF and NQFThe European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong learning EQFThe 8 EQF reference levels and their descriptorsBased on learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and competence) andnot learning/teaching/training systems. 8 levels covering all levels of academic and vocational qualificationsLearning outcomesShifts focus from input to what a person knows and is able to dobetter match between needs of the labour market and education and training provisionfacilitates transfer and use of qualifications across different countries and education and training systemsfacilitates validation of non-formal and informal learning
12Finnish NQF levels Level 1 Level 2 Completion of Basic Education syllabusLevel 3Level 4Matriculation examination, completion of upper secondary syllabusVocational upper secondary qualificationsFurther Vocational QualificationsQualifications from other administrative sectors corresponding to requirements of vocational upper secondary or further vocational qualificationsLevel 5Specialist vocational qualificationsQualifications from other administrative sectors corresponding to requirements of specialist vocational qualificationsLevel 6University and polytechnic Bachelor’s DegreesLevel 7University and polytechnic Master’s DegreesLevel 8Scientific and artistic post-graduate degrees, such as licentiate and doctoral degrees
13European Credit for Vocational Education and Training ECVET The Ecvet is a system for the accumulation and transfer of credit point in vocational education and training. It enables the documentation and certification of learning outcomes gained in the course of vocational education and training abroad.ECVET will improve transparency of qualificationsA person has an opportunity for a learning period abroada person can transfer “home” his new learning outcomes and include them for the qualification.
14Why is ECVET important?International student exchanges are more attractive, if there is a certainty, how studies completed during the exchange can be used as part of a qualification.ECVET will allow the added value of international exchanges to be evaluated.ECVET will allow individual learning paths to be created.ECVET will help enrichment of competencies and peer learning – not only taking same like in home country.
15Knowledge Skills Competence Finnish targets of assessments vs. learning outcomesdescribed in terms of ”KSC”1. Mastering of work processesKnowledge2. Mastering of tasks, workingmethods, tools and materialsSkills3. Mastering of knowledge thatforms foundation for workCompetence4. LLL- key competenciescommon to all qualifications