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Learning Theories and Interprofessional Education: An Overview ESRC Seminar Series: 26 th June 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Theories and Interprofessional Education: An Overview ESRC Seminar Series: 26 th June 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Theories and Interprofessional Education: An Overview ESRC Seminar Series: 26 th June 2009

2 Background Research evidence underpinning the drive for IPL is still growing (Payler et al., 2007; Thistlewaite, 2008) Research evidence underpinning the drive for IPL is still growing (Payler et al., 2007; Thistlewaite, 2008) Descriptive, anecdotal & atheoretical? (Freeth et al., 2002; Barr et al., 2005; Clarke, 2006) Descriptive, anecdotal & atheoretical? (Freeth et al., 2002; Barr et al., 2005; Clarke, 2006) Few interventions identify the educational theory underpinning the development & delivery of IPE initiatives (Cooper et al., 2001; Freeth et al., 2002; Barr et al., 2005) Few interventions identify the educational theory underpinning the development & delivery of IPE initiatives (Cooper et al., 2001; Freeth et al., 2002; Barr et al., 2005) Kolbs (1984) experiential learning cycle, adult learning theory & psychological theories of group behaviours and teamwork approaches (Cooper et al., 2001; Barr et al., 2005) and learning organisations (Freeth et al., 2002) Kolbs (1984) experiential learning cycle, adult learning theory & psychological theories of group behaviours and teamwork approaches (Cooper et al., 2001; Barr et al., 2005) and learning organisations (Freeth et al., 2002) Theory needed to guide IPE curriculum development (Eraut, 2003; Clark, 2006) Theory needed to guide IPE curriculum development (Eraut, 2003; Clark, 2006)

3 Families of Learning Theory Behaviourism Behaviourism Constructivism Constructivism-cognitive - social Use in IPE? Use in IPE?

4 Behaviourists consider that: Learning outcomes are important as opposed to the processes underpinning this learning; Learning outcomes are important as opposed to the processes underpinning this learning; All behaviour is learned and all learning involves an observable change in behaviour; All behaviour is learned and all learning involves an observable change in behaviour; Adopt a positivist approach; Adopt a positivist approach; Students own activity in achieving outcomes is pivotal to learning. Students own activity in achieving outcomes is pivotal to learning. (Jarvis et al., 2003; Armitage et al., 2003)

5 Behaviourism in IPE IPE curriculum developers create an outcome based curriculum; IPE curriculum developers create an outcome based curriculum; Interprofessional competencies (Arredondo et al., 2004; Norris et al., 2005) Interprofessional competencies (Arredondo et al., 2004; Norris et al., 2005) -learning outcomes assessed and evaluated No clear reference to IPE competencies in curriculum design No clear reference to IPE competencies in curriculum design IPE evaluations- Kirkpatricks (1967) model IPE evaluations- Kirkpatricks (1967) model

6 Modified Kirkpatrick's Model of Educational Outcomes for IPE (Barr et al., 2000; Freeth et al, 2002; Hammick et al., 2007) (Barr et al., 2000; Freeth et al, 2002; Hammick et al., 2007) 1ReactionLearner's views on the learning experience and its interprofessional nature. 2aModifications of attitudes/perceptions Changes in reciprocal attitudes or perceptions between participant groups. Changes in perception or attitude towards the value and/or use of team approaches to caring for a specific patient group. 2bAcquisition of knowledge/skills Including knowledge and skills linked to interprofessional collaboration. 3Behavioural changeIdentifies individuals' transfer of interprofessional learning to their practice setting and changed professional practice. *Self report (Kilminister et al., 2004; Pollard et al., 2005; Pollard and Miers, 2008) 4a Change in Organizational practice Wider changes in the organizational and delivery of care. 4bBenefits to patients Improvements in health or well-being of patients.

7 Cognitive Constructivism Concerned with the process of how learners learn; Concerned with the process of how learners learn; Adult learning- self directed learning Adult learning- self directed learning Learning is within the learners control (Spencer and Jordan, 1999; Kaufman, 2003; Wood, 2003) Learning is within the learners control (Spencer and Jordan, 1999; Kaufman, 2003; Wood, 2003) Application and use of developmental theories (Paiget, 1973) Application and use of developmental theories (Paiget, 1973)

8 Clark (2006) applied Perrys (1970) theory: Commitment to relativism Relativism: recognise other professions Dualism: expansion of beliefs beyond own profession Accepting of the range of complementary professions required to provide holistic care; Students recognise the presence and nature of other professions. Via IPE students are offered an opportunity to expand beliefs beyond own profession Ultimate Goal

9 IPE Curriculum Developers Role: Consider ways to develop students knowledge by activating and building on existing knowledge bases- transformative learning Consider key assumptions underlying the constructivist origins of adult learning theory (ALT) or androgogy (Knowles, 1990; Kaufman, 2003) ALT- key mechanism for well received IPE (Hammick et al., 2007)

10 Teaching methods used to facilitate adult learning: Self-directed learning (Kaufman, 2003) Problem based learning (Newble, 2002; Wood, 2003); Discovery learning (Spencer and Jordan, 1999; OHalloran et al., 2006); Case based learning; Portfolio based learning; Project based learning; Peer evaluation; Use of learning contracts (Kolb, 1984; Brown and Atkins, 1988; Spencer and Jordan, 1999). Use reflective practitioner theory (Schon, 1984; Goosey and Barr, 2002) and experiential learning (Moon, 2004; Roberts et al., 2000).

11 Social Constructivism – Vygotsky (1978; 1986) DEon (2005): Use of IPE tasks could become progressively more complex from, for example simple paper case-based scenarios with two disciplines to very complex cases in real life settings with many disciplines Learning- mediated via socio-cultural instruments e.g. language Support systems

12 Social constructivism & macro level thinking: Used to inform evaluations of IPE (see, for example Robinson and Cottrell, 2005; Payler et al., 2007); Why has it not been used to inform IPE curriculum development? -HE curriculum developers- focus on micro level of learning (Hean, Craddock and OHalloran, 2009) -Critics of activity theory (Fuller et al., 2005; Payler et al., 2007) Communities of practice (Wenger, 1998) Activity systems (Engestrom, 1999; 2004). Expansive learning –to create new knowledge & practice

13 Summary Insufficient rigorous research identifying the theoretical underpinning of IPE initiatives; Insufficient rigorous research identifying the theoretical underpinning of IPE initiatives; Implications of overlooking IPE theorising; Implications of overlooking IPE theorising; Benefits of IPE theorising Benefits of IPE theorising Catholic approach to a whole range of theoretical doctrines is needed (Meads et al, 2003). Catholic approach to a whole range of theoretical doctrines is needed (Meads et al, 2003).

14 Time for Reflection How can learning theory be used to inform your own work? How can learning theory be used to inform your own work? How can you evaluate its use in practice? How can you evaluate its use in practice? How can we work together to advance knowledge in this field? How can we work together to advance knowledge in this field?

15 Our overview of contemporary learning theories used in IPE: Our overview of contemporary learning theories used in IPE: BEHAVIOURISM interprofessional competencies A CONSTRUCTIVISM B Cognitive Developmental/stage theory Self directed, experiential, problem based, discovery B-1 Social Social conflict theory Socio-cultural learning Situated learning Collaborative learning Interprofessional learning B2 Expansive learning B3 ADULT LEARNING Self directed, experiential, problem based, discovery interprofessional, collaborative B-1-1 MICRO MACRO (Hean, Craddock and OHalloran, 2009)


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