Outline 1. How do people learn? Review of the place of learning theory in activity design. 2. What helps people learn more effectively? Principles of effective pedagogic design. 3. What works in practice? – Case study analysis. 4. What does the technology contribute? Typology of technologies for learning. Examples Lecture Capture, Moodle for Peer assessment. 5. How can I approach the design of technology enabled activities? Design task with JISC effective practice planner.
1. How do people learn? Three approaches to understanding learning
Three (and a half) approaches to understanding learning People learn by association: building ideas or skills step-by-step e.g. mnemonics, training drills, imitation, instruction associative learning leads to accurate reproduction or recall People learn by constructing ideas and skills through active discovery e.g. exploration, experimentation, guided discovery, problem-solving, reflection constructive learning leads to integrated skills and deep understanding People learn by constructing ideas and skills through dialogue e.g. discussion, debate, collaboration, shared knowledge-building social constructive learning also leads to integrated skills and deep understanding People learn by participating in communities of practice e.g. apprenticeship, work-based learning, legitimate peripheral participation situated practice leads to the development of habits, values and identities
Three broad approaches cont. All approaches emphasise: Learner activity Constructive alignment of activities with desired outcomes The importance of feedback Opportunities for consolidation (practice) and integration They differ in: The role and importance of other people The authenticity of the activity The formality of activity structures and sequences The emphasis on retention/reproduction or reflection/internalisation The locus of control
Further resources Terry Mayes and Sara de Freitas (2004) Review of e-learning theories, frameworks and models JISC Effective Practice in a Digital Age: pages 10-11 Theory into Practice database http://tip.psychology.org/theories.html http://tip.psychology.org/theories.html Theories of Learning – short paper from Oxford Brookes http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/theories.html http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsd/2_learntch/theories.html
2. What helps people learn more effectively? Principles of effective pedagogic design
Principles of effective learning design People learn more effectively when: They are active They are motivated and engaged Their existing capabilities are brought into play They are appropriately challenged zone of proximal development scaffolding differentiation They have opportunities for dialogue (with tutors, mentors or peers) They receive feedback (intrinsic or extrinsic) They have opportunities for consolidation and integration
Outline of a learning activity Identities: preferences, needs, motivations Competences: skills, knowledge, abilities Roles: approaches and modes of participating Tools, resources, artefacts Affordances of the physical and virtual environment for learning learning environment Other people involved and the specific role they play in the interaction e.g. support, mediate, challenge, guide specific interaction of learner(s) with other(s), using specific tools and resources, oriented towards specific outcomes learner(s) other people learning activity learning outcome(s) New knowledge, skills and abilities Artefacts of the activity process Feedback (intrinsic or extrinsic)
Further resources Effective Practice in a Digital Age: pages 12-13 Beetham, H. & Sharpe R. (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy in a Digital Age. Oxon:Routledge John Biggs (2003) Aligning teaching for constructive learning: available from the HE Academy resources database
Activity - 1 3. What works in practice? Case study analysis
Think about the following: Which learning theories are relevant? Which pedagogic principles are being used? Which activities help learners achieve which outcomes? How do the e-learning tools and resources support specific activities/outcomes? specific learners needs?
Learning Activity Problems Investigations Projects Tasks Role plays Learning Resources Learning Supports Modified after Oliver & Herrington, 2001 Books, papers, Notes, web links, audio, Video, home study kits, Lectures, etc Schedules, instructions Procedures, announcements individual group Teams, collaboration, Tutorials, conferences, Buddies, mentors Tutorials, quizzes, Simulations, worksheets Elements in learning design assessment
Further resources Littlejohn, A. & Pegler, C. (2007) Preparing for blended e-learning. Oxon:Routledge. Diana Laurillard (2003) Rethinking University Teaching 2 nd Edition: Routledge
4. What does the technology contribute? Typology of technologies for learning.
A typology of technologies for learning Based on Laurillard (1993, 2 nd Edition 2003) Typology has been used to support design for learning e.g. Conole (2004); Littlejohn (2004); Warren and Mayer (2000) Expresses how technologies are used for learning Narrative = enabling representation of ideas Communicative = enabling dialogue between learners and others Interactive, Productive and Adaptive = enabling various forms of interactivity between learner(s) and the learning system Integrative (added category) = enabling integration of learning across activities
The typology can be used to… Choose a technology type to support a specific learning activity or outcome Choose specific technologies within a type to suit learners ICT capabilities and skills to offer learners choice and autonomy e.g. over mode of access, approach to learning, medium used, adaptive technology… to support collaborative and peer learning (if appropriate) that is available, affordable and effectively supported
Focus on technologies Lecture Capture Moodle tools for Peer Assessment
Further resources Mason, R. & Rennie, F. (2008) E-learning and social networking handbook. Oxon:Routledge.
5. How can I approach the design of technology enabled activities? Design task with JISC effective practice planner.
Tools for design JISC Planner – detailed analysis of context Oliver and Herrington LDS – description of a learning design.
Activity 2 - Have a go …… Use the scenario provided or your own course to develop a technology enabled activity design.
Where next…. Research and evaluation methods, including ethical considerations: – 1/12/10. Discuss your plans with your adviser Drafts of design proposal: 12/12/10