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SE503 Advanced Project Management Dr. Ahmed Sameh, Ph.D. Professor, CS & IS Traditional Project Management.

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Presentation on theme: "SE503 Advanced Project Management Dr. Ahmed Sameh, Ph.D. Professor, CS & IS Traditional Project Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 SE503 Advanced Project Management Dr. Ahmed Sameh, Ph.D. Professor, CS & IS Traditional Project Management

2 2/33 Traditional Approach Plan the work – Scope of work – Budget – Schedule Work the plan – Manage the project team – Deal with resources, contractors, consultants – Deal with uncertainty

3 3/33 Project Plan - Contents Objectives (present vs. proposed situation) Benefits Project Team Organization Scope of Work Budget (detail, controls) Schedule (Network, Milestones) Resources (equipment, labor, contractors)

4 4/33 Project Plan - Purpose Identify objectives and key deliverables Baseline for evaluating progress Coordinate with external parties Communicate to affected parties Highlight critical issues

5 5/33 Why Organize the Work? Formal definition of scope – Work Breakdown Structure Provides a basis for organizing the project – Budget and estimates – Schedule and tracking – Documentation – Personnel assignments

6 6/33 Work Breakdown Process Inputs – Project objectives – Constraints – Assumptions Methods – Identify deliverables – Define how they will be produced Outcomes – Hierarchical organization – Numbering system Verify – Are objectives met? – Any missing tasks? – Any non-value tasks?

7 7/33 Work Breakdown Strategies Divide and conquer Divide by… – Geography – Specialty – Process flow – Time (phase) – Deliverables

8 8/33 Some WBS Issues Numbering system – Related to systems in use Equipment numbers Account numbers Drawing numbers Project filing system – Provides a coherent numbering system for budget, schedule Hierarchy span – Number of subdivisions at each level – How many is too many?

9 9/33 WBS Checklist Research Design Material/Equipment Specification Purchasing Delivery/Move to job site Installation Startup/checkout

10 10/33 Remember… Permits/licenses Meetings Reports

11 11/33 WBS Format Project A – Part 1 Task A101 Task A102 – Part 2 Task A201 Task A202 – Part 3 Task A301 Task A302 Task A303

12 12/33 Project Budget Total Cost Estimate Spending Plan Target Accuracy (5-15%) Follow the WBS and Schedule

13 13/33 Elements of an Estimate Material Cost – remember tax and freight (11%) Labor Cost – Remember overtime, holiday pay, etc. Other Costs – Permits, fees – Equipment rental, leases – Secretarial, administration, document reproduction, phone calls, fax, overhead, profit, etc. – Contingency and escalation

14 14/33 Presenting the Budget Report in Dollars Follow Work Breakdown Breakout – Direct costs/Indirect costs – Labor/Non-labor – Overhead/Burden/G&A – Labor hours, breakout by craft Indicate Uncertainty

15 15/33 Spending Plan Combination of budget and schedule Period-by-period spending Cumulative spending curve Distribute indirect/other costs

16 16/33 Project Scheduling Time dimension of project plan Shows logical relationships between tasks Determines completion date and milestone dates Identifies critical items Core of project management

17 17/33 Schedule Elements Tasks (have duration) Milestones (no duration, important events) Relationships (between tasks/milestones) Time line (hours, days, weeks, months)

18 18/33 Network Techniques PERT/CPM Precedence Diagramming – Logical relationships – Immediate predecessors only Critical Path - longest path from project start to project finish.

19 19/33 Precedence Relationships Immediate Predecessors Finish-to-Start (standard) Start-to-Start (start dependency) Finish-to-Finish (finish dependency) Start-to-Finish (overlap) Lag

20 20/33 Time Estimating Single estimate Three-point estimate (PERT) – Optimistic (To) – Most Likely (Tm) – Pessimistic (Tp) – Expected = (To + 4Tm + Tp) / 6 – Beta distribution, triangle distribution Inaccuracies

21 21/33 Estimating Exercise 24-piece puzzle Three-point estimate

22 22/33 Presenting the Schedule Gantt Chart – Activities vs. Time – No logic Precedence Diagram (PERT chart) – Shows logic – No time scale Time scaled logic diagram (both) Indicate activities on Critical Path

23 23/33 Project Network START node – No predecessors – One or more successors END node – One or more predecessors – No successors Tasks have – One or more predecessors – One or more successors – Duration Critical Path – Longest path from START to END Network is – Directed – Acyclic – Compact

24 24/33 Project Network Structure

25 25/33 Example Time-scaled Logic

26 26/33 Network Calculations Forward pass – Use early start and early finish dates – Series (add) and parallel (max) combinations – Calculate critical path (latest early finish) Backward pass – Calculate late finish and late start – Calculate slack (or criticality) – Identify critical tasks

27 27/33 Schedule Terminology Float/Slack Early Start Date Late Start Date Early Finish Date Late Finish Date

28 28/33 Resource Allocation Standard PERT/CPM methods assume project is time constrained Resource constrained projects are common Resources – People – Equipment – Space

29 29/33 Why Bother? Avoid Under-Allocation – Idle time – Layoffs Avoid Over-Allocation – Exceeding available pool – Early warning of delays Allocate Resources Across Multiple Projects

30 30/33 Resource Procedures Identify Resources for each Task Blend Resource Needs with Schedule to Identify Demands on each Resource Identify Options to Improve Resource Allocation Identify Effects on Schedule/Critical Path

31 31/33 Resource Considerations Tasks that Exceed the Planned Duration often Consume More Resources Adding Resources to a Task does not always Reduce Duration Linearly There is usually a Cost Involved with Changing Resource Allocations

32 32/33 Resource Leveling Level the Demand on each Resource Approaches – Change task durations (shorter/longer) – Shift task start times – Split tasks Resource Leveling Becomes Complicated Very Quickly and can Involve Multiple Strategies

33 33/33 Summary Plan the work, work the plan Scope of work (WBS) Budget Schedule – Time estimates – Network techniques Resource management Homework

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