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© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 1 Software Project Management 4th Edition Activity planning Chapter 6
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 2 Scheduling Time is natures way of stopping everything happening at once Having –worked out a method of doing the project –identified the tasks to be carried –assessed the time needed to do each task need to allocate dates/times for the start and end of each activity
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 3 Activity networks These help us to: Assess the feasibility of the planned project completion date Identify when resources will need to be deployed to activities Calculate when costs will be incurred This helps the co-ordination and motivation of the project team
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 4 Identifying activities Work-based: draw-up a Work Breakdown Structure listing the work items needed Product-based approach – list the deliverable and intermediate products of project – product breakdown structure (PBS) –Identify the order in which products have to be created –work out the activities needed to create the products
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 5 Hybrid approach A Work Breakdown Structure based on deliverables
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 6 The final outcome of the planning process A project plan as a bar chart
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 7 PERT vs CPM PERT Do A Do C Do B Do D CPM Do A Do B Do C Do D
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 8 Drawing up a PERT diagram No looping back is allowed – deal with iterations by hiding them within single activities milestones – activities, such as the start and end of the project, which indicate transition points. They have zero duration.
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 9 Lagged activities Where there is a fixed delay between activities e.g. seven days notice has to be given to users that a new release has been signed off and is to be installed Acceptance testing Install new release 7days 20 days 1day
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 10 Types of links between activities Finish to start Start to start/ Finish to finish Software development Acceptance testing Test prototype Document Amendments 1 day 2 days
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 11 Types of links between activities Start to finish Operate temporary system Acceptance test of new system Cutover to new system
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 12 Start and finish times Activity write report software Earliest start (ES) Earliest finish (EF) = ES + duration Latest finish (LF) = latest task can be completed without affecting project end Latest start = LF - duration Earliest start Latest start Latest finish Earliest finish activity
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 13 Example earliest start = day 5 latest finish = day 30 duration = 10 days earliest finish = ? latest start = ? Float = LF - ES - duration What is it in this case?
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 14 Notation Activity description Activity labelDuration ES LS EF LF Activity span Float
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 15
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 16 Earliest start date Earliest start date for the current activity = earliest finish date for the previous When there is more than one previous activity, take the latest earliest finish Note day 7 = end of work on day 7 EF = day 7 EF = day10 ES = day10
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 17 Example of an activity network
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 18 Complete the table
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 19 Latest start dates Start from the last activity Latest finish (LF) for last activity = earliest finish (EF) work backwards Latest finish for current activity = Latest start for the following More than one following activity - take the earliest LS Latest start (LS) = LF for activity - duration
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 20 Example: LS for all activities?
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 21 Complete the table
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 22 Float Float = Latest finish - Earliest start - Duration ES Latest start activity LF FLOAT
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 23 Complete the table
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 24 Critical path Note the path through network with zero floats Critical path: any delay in an activity on this path will delay whole project Can there be more than one critical path? Can there be no critical path? Sub-critical paths
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005 25 Free and interfering float A7w 0 7 B4w 04 C10w 0 10 D1w 78 E2w 1012 10 9 9 9 2 5 0 02 0 5 2 B can be up to 3 days late and not affect any other activity = free float B can be a further 2 days late – affects D but not the project end date = interfering float
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