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©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 1 Project management.

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Presentation on theme: "©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 1 Project management."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 1 Project management

2 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 2 Objectives l To explain the main tasks undertaken by project managers l To introduce software project management and to describe its distinctive characteristics l To discuss project planning and the planning process l To show how graphical schedule representations are used by project management l To discuss the notion of risks and the risk management process

3 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 3 Topics covered l Management activities l Project planning l Project scheduling l Risk management

4 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 4 l Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time and on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organisations developing and procuring the software. l Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organisation developing the software. Software project management

5 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 5 l The product is intangible. l The product is uniquely flexible. l The software development process is not standardised. l Software engineering is not recognized as an engineering discipline with the same status as mechanical, electrical engineering, etc. l Many software projects are 'one-off' projects (rapid technological changes). Software management distinctions

6 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 6 l Proposal writing. l Project planning and scheduling. l Project costing. l Project monitoring and reviews. l Personnel selection, supervision, and evaluation. l Report writing and presentations Management activities

7 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 7 l These activities are not peculiar to software management. l Many techniques of engineering project management are equally applicable to software project management. l Technically complex engineering systems tend to suffer from the same problems as software systems. Management commonalities

8 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 8 Project staffing l May not be possible to appoint the ideal people to work on a project Project budget may not allow for the use of highly-paid staff; Staff with the appropriate experience may not be available; An organisation may wish to develop employee skills on a software project. l Managers have to work within these constraints especially when there are shortages of trained staff.

9 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide Project planning l Probably the most time-consuming project management activity. l Continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery. Plans must be regularly revised as new information becomes available. l Various different types of plans may be developed to support the main software project plan that is concerned with schedule and budget.

10 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 10 Types of project plan

11 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 11 Project planning process Establish the project constraints Make initial assessments of the project parameters Define project milestones and deliverables while project has not been completed or cancelled loop Draw up project schedule Initiate activities according to schedule Wait ( for a while ) Review project progress Revise estimates of project parameters Update the project schedule Re-negotiate project constraints and deliverables if ( problems arise ) then Initiate technical review and possible revision end if end loop

12 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 12 The project plan l The project plan sets out: The resources available to the project; The work breakdown; A schedule for the work.

13 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 13 Project plan structure l Introduction. l Project organisation. l Risk analysis. l Hardware and software resource requirements. l Work breakdown. l Project schedule. l Monitoring and reporting mechanisms.

14 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 14 Activity organization l Activities in a project should be organised to produce tangible outputs for management to judge progress. l Milestones are the end-point of a process activity. l Deliverables are project results delivered to customers. l The waterfall process allows for the straightforward definition of progress milestones.

15 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 15 Milestones in requirement process

16 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide Project scheduling l Split project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task. l Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal use of workforce. l Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete. l Dependent on project managers intuition and experience.

17 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 17 The project scheduling process Estimate resources for activities Identify activity dependencies Identify activities Allocate people to activities Software requirementsand bar charts Create project charts Activity charts

18 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 18 Scheduling problems l Estimating the difficulty of problems and hence the cost of developing a solution is hard. l Productivity is not proportional to the number of people working on a task. l Adding people to a late project makes it later because of communication overheads. l The unexpected always happens. Always allow contingency in planning. (+30% for anticipated possible problems, and +20% for unexpected)

19 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 19 Bar charts and activity networks l Graphical notations used to illustrate the project schedule. l Show project breakdown into tasks. Tasks should not be too small. They should take about a week or two. l Activity charts show task dependencies and the the critical path. l Bar charts show schedule against calendar time.

20 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 20 Task durations and dependencies

21 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 21 Activity network

22 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 22 Activity timeline (Gantt chart)

23 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 23 Staff allocation Put dependable staff on critical tasks

24 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide Risk management l Risk management is concerned with identifying risks and drawing up plans to minimise their effect on a project. l A risk is a probability that some adverse circumstance will occur Project risks affect schedule or resources; Product risks affect the quality or performance of the software being developed; Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the software.

25 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 25 Software risks

26 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 26 The risk management process l Risk identification Identify project, product and business risks; l Risk analysis Assess the likelihood and consequences of these risks; l Risk planning Draw up plans to avoid or minimise the effects of the risk; l Risk monitoring Monitor the risks throughout the project.

27 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 27 The risk management process

28 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 28 Risk identification l Technology risks. l People risks. l Organisational risks. l Requirements risks. l Estimation risks.

29 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 29 Risks and risk types

30 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 30 Risk analysis l Assess probability and seriousness of each risk. l Probability may be very low, low, moderate, high or very high. l Risk effects might be catastrophic, serious, tolerable or insignificant.

31 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 31 Risk analysis (i)

32 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 32 Risk analysis (ii)

33 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 33 Risk planning l Consider each risk and develop a strategy to manage that risk. l Avoidance strategies The probability that the risk will arise is reduced; l Minimisation strategies The impact of the risk on the project or product will be reduced; l Contingency plans If the risk arises, contingency plans are plans to deal with that risk;

34 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 34 Risk management strategies (i)

35 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 35 Risk management strategies (ii)

36 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 36 Risk monitoring l Assess each identified risks regularly to decide whether or not it is becoming less or more probable. l Also assess whether the effects of the risk have changed. l Each key risk should be discussed at management progress meetings.

37 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 37 Risk indicators

38 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 38 Key points l Good project management is essential for project success. l The intangible nature of software causes problems for management. l Managers have diverse roles but their most significant activities are planning, estimating and scheduling. l Planning and estimating are iterative processes which continue throughout the course of a project.

39 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 39 l A project milestone is a predictable state where a formal report of progress is presented to management. l Project scheduling involves preparing various graphical representations showing project activities, their durations and staffing. l Risk management is concerned with identifying risks which may affect the project and planning to ensure that these risks do not develop into major threats. Key points

40 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 40 Assignments l 5.5, 5.6

41 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 41 Phase Proposal report -1 l 3-10 pages l Free style in writing (use 11pt font or larger) l Team member list l Contact person (for communication with instructor and TAs) l Project description Overview Customer / user Objectives (basic requirement) Scope Benefits,…

42 ©Ian Sommerville 2004Software Engineering, 7th edition. Chapter 5 Slide 42 Phase Proposal report -2 l Model to follow Software process model (waterfall, evolutionary, or component-based) Process iteration (incremental or spiral) Any template to follow? CASE tool to use? l Project management plan Regular meetings? (preferably weekly) Role assignments for each member? Report system (show slide or present report at the meeting) Milestones and deliverables (simple scheduling) Risk management (what if one member drops from class)


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