2Defining Activities Activity definition leads to the WBS Activity definition should not be so tight as to define virtually every taskThe activity definition process goes just far enough to identify all tasks so you can create time and budget estimates
3Activity Sequencing Some activities can run side by side Others must occur one before the other – these activities are said to have dependenciesTypes of dependencies:Mandatory: one task depends on anotherDiscretionary: you can choose the sequence and/or dependency of a task(s)External: something outside affects/controlsthe task’s sequencing (dependency)
4Logical Relationships One task can affect the start/finish time of another, it may need to be finished before another starts:Predecessor: a task that occurs before another task (on the same path)Successor: a task that occurs after another task (on the same path)Task B(B is a successor to task A)Task A(A is a predecessor to task B)
5Logical Relationships Different kinds of relationships can exist between activities:Finish- to-Start: successor cannot begin until predecessor finishesStart-to-Finish: finish of successor depends on start of predecessorFinish-to-Finish: finish of successor depends on finish of predecessorStart-to-Start: start of successor depends on start of predecessor
6Creating a Network Diagram A network diagram models project activities and the relationships among the activities.The Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) is a common type of network diagram (see next slide).PDM style uses boxes to represent tasks and arrows to show dependencies.
7Creating a Network Diagram Other types of network diagramming include:arrow diagramming method (ADM)conditional diagramming method (CDM)critical path method (CPM)* The text mentions critical chain method (CCM), and while this is a valid type it is not discussed later in the text, but CPM (another method) is discussed later in the chapter (* referring to “CCM” looks like a misprint)
8Network Diagram (PDM) Example BEndACDStartIn this example (taken from Figure 4.2 in text):Activity A is a predecessor to Activities B and D.Activity B is a predecessor to Activities C and D.In order for D to start, both A and B must be complete.In order to end the project, both C and D must be complete.
9Creating a Network Diagram Basic rules for PDM network diagrams:there is one start and one end boxeach box equates to one activity (task)arrows connect one box to anotheran arrow coming into a box indicates a dependencythere can be more than one arrow coming out of or going into a box (indicating multiple dependencies)network diagrams are created after activity estimates are known
10Activity Duration Estimating Along with identifying tasks (activities) and their dependencies, you need to specify (estimate) how long each task takes.Duration is how long it takes to complete a task in terms of days, hours, weeks, months, etc. – the total elapsed time.When estimating how long an activity is going to take, hours in the workday, weekends, holidays, etc. have to be considered.* See Figure 4.3
11Duration Estimating Techniques Several techniques can be used for estimating, including:analogous: using durations from similar activities on a previous projectexpert judgement: using experts to create estimates – someone who can draw on past experienceparametric estimating: quantitatively based where the quantity of work multiplied by the rate
12Duration Estimating Techniques three-point estimates: an average of the “most likely” estimate, “pessimistic” estimate and “optimistic” estimatesample: ( )/3 = 11 daysPERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique): similar to “three-point” but use 4 of the “most likely” in your calcs and divide by 6 to get the averagesample: ((10*4) )/6 = 10.5 days* See Figure 4.4
13Creating The Project Schedule Schedule development is the establishment of start and finish dates for all project activitiesSchedule development techniques include:Mathematical analysis (critical path method)Duration compressionProject management software
14Critical Path Method (CPM) The Critical Path Method:the longest activity sequence path in the projectcontrols the finish date of the projectactivities on path have no float (slack) timealso identifies tasks that can start late (have float time)To use CPM, complete the following steps:Forward PassBackward PassFloat
15CPM Forward Pass Use Network Diagram and working from left-to-right: Calculate Early Start:Earliest date activity may begin based on any predecessors1st task has Early Start of 0Use duration of activity (plus any predecessors)Calculate Early Finish:Earliest date activity may finish based on Early StartUse duration of activity (plus Early Start)* See Figure 4.4 and Table 4.1
16CPM Backward Pass Use Network Diagram and working from right-to-left: Calculate Late Finish:Latest date activity may complete without impacting end dateLate Finish of last task(s) is the project finish dateSubtract duration from Late Finish to get Late Finish of its predecessorCalculate Late Start:Latest date activity may be started without impacting end dateLate Start of 1st task is 0Subtract duration from Late Finish to get Late StartLate Start of one task becomes Late Finish for its predecessor* See Figure 4.4 and Table 4.2
17CPM Float * See Figure 4.4 and Table 4.3 Using the Forward Pass and/or Backward Pass information, calculate Float by either:subtracting Early Start from Late Startsubtracting Early Finish from Late Finish* NOTE: If done correctly, using either calculation will give the same result, so you can verify correctness by doing both.* See Figure 4.4 and Table 4.3The Critical Path includes all tasks that do not have Float (slack) time.
18Duration CompressionDuration Compression can be used when total project time is calculated to be greater than expected completion timeCompression techniques include:Crashing:You add resources to an activity so as to reduce its durationYou cannot crash critical path activitiesMight result in a new critical pathMay have an economic impact on project (can be costly to do)Fast Track:Do tasks in parallel (that would normally be done in sequence)Involves a lot of risk, so must communicate this to stakeholders
19Project Management Software Project Management Software (such as MS Project) can be very useful in scheduling, WBS, etc. and in communicating this info.Various diagrams and charts can be created and used (i.e. Gantt, etc.)
20Project Management Software Milestones are key events in a project:which should be identified/definedwhich often involve major deliverableswhose dates are very importantthat can be documented using a milestone chart (* see Table 4.4)Gantt charts can also show milestones(* see Figure 4.5 for a sample Gantt)
21Project Management Software The schedule baseline is the:final approved version of schedule (at the start of project)must be approved by stakeholderscan be used throughout project to measure progressshould only be changed if (absolutely) necessary* See page 106 (Real World Scenario) for discussion of some of the Chaptal Wineries project scheduling, etc. issues