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1 Precedence Diagramming. 2 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) A deliverable oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Precedence Diagramming. 2 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) A deliverable oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Precedence Diagramming

2 2 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) A deliverable oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team to accomplish the team mission and create the required deliverables. The WBS defines the project scope. Scheduling Terminology Team Mission

3 3 Deliverable Any unique and verifiable product or result that must be produced to complete a project. Usually the lowest level of the WBS. Scheduling Terminology Team Mission

4 4 Scheduled Activity (task) A component of work performed to create a deliverable. Scheduling Terminology Team Mission Task 1 Task 2 (Etc.) Task 1 Task 2 (Etc.) Task 1 Task 2 (Etc.) Task 1 Task 2 (Etc.) Task 1 Task 2 (Etc.) Task 1 Task 2 (Etc.) WBS (Scope) Activity List (Schedule)

5 5 Duration Total number of work periods required to complete a scheduled activity. Usually expressed as workdays. (contrast with effort) Effort Total number of labor units requird to complete a scheduled activity. Usually expressed as staff hours or a rate. (contrast with duration) Schedule Milestone A significant event in the project schedule, such as an event restraining future work or marking the completion of a major deliverable. A measuring point. Milestones have 0 (zero) duration and no resource assignments. Scheduling Terminology

6 6 Basic Bar Chart (Gantt Chart)

7 7 Defining Activities/Tasks Definition Assignment Significance

8 8 Task Interdependencies Specify Task Relationships All tasks are Related To: Other Schedule Activities –Mandatory or Hard Logic –Discretionary or Soft Logic External Events –Dependent Dates –Required Dates Network Diagram Task Interdependencies

9 9 FS – Finish Start Start Finish SS – Start Start FF – Finish Finish Start Finish Types of Task Relationships Finish Start

10 10 Lead and Lag are used to Modify Relationships Lead and Lag Can be used with any Relationship Type (FS, FF, SS) Normal Finish - Start Leads and Lags Finish – Start Modified by a Lead Finish – Start Modified by a Lag

11 11 Arrow Diagram Method (ADM) (aka Activity on Arrow – AOA) Tasks represented by arrows (length not related to duration) Dependency shown as node Only F-S relationship used Archaic – not used with current software Dummy task used to complete logic, duration of 0

12 12 Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) (aka Activity on Node – AON and Network Diagram) Tasks represented by nodes Dependency shown as arrows or links between nodes All task relationships can be used (FS, FF, SS) Basis for all current software applications A B C D E F G

13 13 Critical Path Sequence of scheduled activities that determines the project duration Longest duration path through the project network Activities on the Critical Path are called Critical Activities Critical activities have no float or slack A project can have more than one critical path Activities not on the Critical Path are called Non Critical Activities To shorten the project duration, a scheduler must modify the critical path activities or dependencies

14 14 Total Float – the total amount of time that a scheduled activity (or milestone) may be delayed or extended without delaying the project end date or violating a schedule constraint. Free Float – the amount of time that a scheduled activity (or milestone) can be delayed without delaying the start of the next activity in the network. Negative Float – the amount of time that by which a critical activity (or milestone) misses a required date. Float (or Slack)

15 15 Critical Path Method 1.Calculate Early Start & Early Finish dates (FORWARD PASS) 2.Calculate Late Start & Late Finish dates (BACKWARD PASS) 3.Calculate TOTAL FLOAT for each activity 4.Identify activities with 0 (zero) TOTAL FLOAT

16 16 Activity Node WBS Code Activity Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Total Float (TF) Duration

17 17 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Simple Project consisting of 5 Tasks

18 18 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 TWO THINGS NEEDED TO SET PROJECT START DATE 1.First and last activities (milestones) 2.Activity durations 1

19 19 Critical Path Method 1.Calculate Early Start & Early Finish dates (FORWARD PASS) 2.Calculate Late Start & Late Finish dates (BACKWARD PASS) 3.Calculate TOTAL FLOAT for each activity 4.Identify activities with 0 (zero) TOTAL FLOAT 6

20 20 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Project Start Date & Task Durations are known 1

21 21 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Early Finish = Early Start + Duration 1 8

22 22 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Early Start With Single Predecessor

23 23 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Early Start With Multiple Predecessors

24 24 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Start-to-Start Relationships (A to E)

25 25 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Completed FORWARD Pass

26 26 Critical Path Method 1.Calculate Early Start & Early Finish dates (FORWARD PASS) 2.Calculate Late Start & Late Finish dates (BACKWARD PASS) 3.Calculate TOTAL FLOAT for each activity 4.Identify activities with 0 (zero) TOTAL FLOAT

27 27 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Start the BACKWARD Pass The last activity Early Finish (EF) will default to be the Late Finish (LF).

28 28 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Late Start (LS) = Late Finish (LF) - Duration

29 29 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Late Starts with Single Successors

30 30 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Late Start with Multiple Successors

31 31 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Finish-to-Finish Relationships (D to E)

32 32 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Completed BACKWARD Pass

33 33 Critical Path Method 1.Calculate Early Start & Early Finish dates (FORWARD PASS) 2.Calculate Late Start & Late Finish dates (BACKWARD PASS) 3.Calculate TOTAL FLOAT for each activity 4.Identify activities with 0 (zero) TOTAL FLOAT 6

34 34 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Total Float (TF) = Late Finish (LF) – Early Finish (EF)

35 35 Critical Path Method 1.Calculate Early Start & Early Finish dates (FORWARD PASS) 2.Calculate Late Start & Late Finish dates (BACKWARD PASS) 3.Calculate TOTAL FLOAT for each activity 4.Identify activities with 0 (zero) TOTAL FLOAT 6

36 36 Activity A WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 7 Activity B WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 5 Activity C WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 2 Activity D WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Activity E WBS CodeActivity Early Start (ES) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Late Finish (LF) Duration Total Float (TF) = 3 Critical Path – Tasks with no Total Float (TF)

37 37 Task A 2 days Task B 3 days Task C 1 days Task D 2 days Task E 4 days Task F 5 days Task G 2 days Start Fin St – A – C – F – Fin: ________ St – B – D – G – Fin: ________ St – B – E – G – Fin: ________ 8 days 7 days 9 days

38 38 Task A 4 days Task B 6 days Task D 5 days Task E 10 days Task F 5 days Task H 7 days Task J 2 days Start Fin Task C 8 days Task G 8 days St – A – D – H – Fin: ________ St – B – E – J – Fin: ________ St – C – F – J – Fin: ________ St – C – G – Fin: ________ 16 days 18 days 15 days 16 days

39 39 ActivityDurationPreceding Activity Start (Milestone)0-- Task A4 daysStart Task B3 daysStart Task C5 daysTask A Task D7 daysTask B Task E3 daysTask B Task F10 daysTask C & Task D Task G4 daysTask D & Task E Task H2 daysTask E Task I2 daysTask F & Task G Task J4 daysTask H Finish (Milestone)0Task I & Task J

40 40 St – A – C – F – I – Fin: ________ St – B – D – F – I – Fin: ________ St – B – D – G – I – Fin: ________ St – B – E – G – I – Fin: ________ St – B – E – H – J – Fin: ________ 12 days 16 days 22 days 21 days Task C 5 days Task A 4 days Start Fin Task B 3 days Task D 7 days Task E 3 days Task F 10 days Task G 4 days Task H 2 days Task J 4 days Task I 2 days 12 days


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