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Project Management from Simple to Complex

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1 Project Management from Simple to Complex

2 This work is licensed under the
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3 Chapter 8 Project Time Management

4 Learning Objectives Define the types of project schedules
Describe a work breakdown structure and how it relates to activities Describe the use of graphic representations for time management Calculate critical path project float, early start dates, and late start dates Describe methods of tracking and reporting progress

5 Learning Objectives Define resource leveling
Describe methods of accelerating the schedule Describe the relationship between the choice of software and project complexity Identify the features that should be considered when selecting software for project management

6 Types of Schedules Conceptual Master Detail

7 Elements of Time Management
According to PMI, project time management includes the following elements: Define activities Sequence activities Estimate activity resources Estimate activity durations Develop schedule Control schedule

8 Elements of Time Management
Work breakdown structure (WBS) A hierarchical listing and grouping of project activities WBS size is directly related to: The amount of work on the project How the work is divided into work packages The WBS can be developed around: Project phases Project units or functions

9 Elements of Time Management
Developing a WBS Define and develop lists of all activities First draft of the WBS includes: Activities at the highest level of the hierarchy or management level Major activities required to accomplish the deliverables The WBS is decomposed to the level that allows the manager to control the project

10 Video Case The video The Work Breakdown Structure for Project Management features Samuel Brown, Course Director — Global Knowledge In the video, he explains the importance of the work breakdown structure to project management To view the video, click here Source: YouTube

11 Video Case — Exercises ‘Work breakdown structure is a strategy map’ — Discuss. Can you list a few pitfalls of the WBS?

12 Estimation of Duration
After creating the WBS, each activity is evaluated to determine: The duration The resources needed The unit of time used is a function of the level of detail needed by the user of the schedule Milestone: An important point in a project without duration or resources

13 Resource Allocation and Calendars
A common resource constraint is availability Team members Consultants Key pieces of equipment A resource calendar indicates working days and days off for a group or individual

14 Activity Sequencing Project logic: Activity sequence showing predecessor and successor activities Predecessor: Activity that comes before Successor: Activity that comes afterward

15 Figure 8.7 - Relationship Between Two Activities
Click below to view full-size

16 Activity Sequencing The relationship between a predecessor and a successor is called a dependency Natural dependency: Sequence that can be determined logically Sequentially: One after the other Finish-start: The first activity must end before the next activity can begin Some activities take place concurrently Start-start: Concurrent activities begin at the same time Finish-finish: Concurrent activities end at the same time

17 Figure 8.8 – Concurrent Activities can be Constrained to Finish at the Same Time or Start at the Same Time Click below to view full-size

18 Activity Sequencing Lag time: Amount of time that must separate the finish of one activity and the beginning of the next sequential activity Lead time: Amount of time that the start of the next activity can overlap the finish of its predecessor The characteristics and identifiers of an activity are its attributes

19 Figure 8.10 - Required time between activities is lag time
Click below to view full-size

20 Figure 8.11 – Overlap is called the lead time of the successor activity
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21 Figure 8.12 - Table of Attributes
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22 Graphic Representations
Gantt chart: Bar chart used to indicate duration and relationships between project activities Project network diagrams: Graphical representation of the sequencing of project activities Precedence diagram method (PDM): Technique for graphically displaying the logic of scheduled activities using boxes and arrows

23 Figure Gantt Chart Click below to view full-size

24 Figure 8.14 - Project Network Diagram
Click below to view full-size

25 Critical Path and Float
Critical path: Sequence of activities through the network that results in the latest completion date of the project To determine the critical path: Add the amount of time estimated for the duration of each activity to the previous activity Determine which path through the network has the longest total duration

26 Figure Critical Path Click below to view full-size

27 Critical Path and Float
Early start (ES) date The soonest date an activity can begin determined by the project start date and the durations of its predecessor activities Forward pass The process of determining the earliest starting date for each activity by beginning at the project start date and adding the activity durations resulting with the early finish date for the project

28 Critical Path and Float
Steps to calculate the early start dates of subsequent activities, assuming finish start relationships: Add the predecessor activity’s duration to its start date Add the lag time or subtract the lead time Refer to the resource calendar and add the number of off-days that the activity would span on those calendars Assign the calculated date as the early start date of the successor activity

29 Figure 8.16 - Early Start Dates Determined by a Forward Pass
Click below to view full-size

30 Critical Path and Float
Float: Amount of time an activity can be delayed from an early start without delaying the completion date Total float: The amount of time the project start date can be delayed without delaying the project completion date Negative float: The amount by which the early completion date exceeds the project completion date

31 Figure 8.17 - Total Project Float
Click below to view full-size

32 Critical Path and Float
Steps to calculate the late start dates of predecessor activities, assuming finish-start relationships: Subtract the predecessor activity’s duration from its late finish date Subtract the lag time or add the lead time to the late finish date Refer to the resource calendar and subtract the number of off days that the activity would span on those calendars Assign the calculated date as the late start date of the predecessor activity

33 Critical Path and Float
Free float: The time an activity that is not on the critical path can be delayed without delaying the start of a successor activity

34 Managing the Schedule To measure the progress of the project:
Determine the percentage of resources expended Determine the milestones achieved Determine the activities which have been completed by scheduled dates Resource leveling: Distributing work load to reduce uneven concentrations of work

35 Managing the Schedule Methods of accelerating the schedule include:
Adding activities to the critical path that are empty or optional Reassigning resources Changing scope Allocating funds for additional resources Changing quality specifications of the product

36 Project Scheduling Software
Simple projects Word processing and spreadsheet software (Microsoft Office, OpenOffice) Medium-complexity projects Dedicated project management software (Microsoft Project, Open Project) Complex projects Software that can track several tasks and produce sophisticated reports (Oracle’s P6)

37 Project Scheduling Software
Use a software which is already in use and is familiar to team members Should have the basic features: Durations Relationships Milestones Start and end dates Resource calendars Graphic displays using Gantt and network charts

38 Project Scheduling Software
Should foster collaboration For complex projects, look for advanced features such as: Issue tracking Project portfolio management Automatic resource leveling and alerts Document management feature

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