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Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 Robert K. Cheng Combustion Technologies Group Environmental Energy Tech. Div Feb 3, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 Robert K. Cheng Combustion Technologies Group Environmental Energy Tech. Div Feb 3, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Combustion and Carbon Cycle 2.0 Robert K. Cheng Combustion Technologies Group Environmental Energy Tech. Div Feb 3, 2010

2 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Combustion Provides > 83% of Our Energy Burning fossil fuels will be a major energy source for the foreseeable future Near term carbon reduction by –fuel switching –efficiency enhancement of combustion systems Long term carbon reduction from combustion by –renewable fuel sources –advanced combustion for renewable fuels –carbon capture and storage Primary Energy Consumption (Quads)CoalPetroleum Natural GasNuclearRenewable Transportation27.7 Industrial20. Residential & Commercial10. Electricity Gen.39.820. TOTAL (Quads)99.122.437. 2008 U.S. Energy consumption

3 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Combustion Technologies Vary by Energy Sector Electricity Generation Gas turbines & Coal Boilers 100-400 MW Metrics – long duty cycle (20,000+ hrs), highly reliable, fuel-flexible, ultra-low emissions Aviation – Jet engines 5 - 22 MW Metrics – highly reliable, high power density, fuel efficient Land & Sea Transport – Reciprocating engines 60 kW – 7 MW Metrics – fuel efficient, durable, low emissions Residential – Gas burners 10 – 100 kW Metrics – safe, durable, ultra-low emissions Commercial & Industrial – gas & oil burners 1 – 30 MW Metric – high efficiency, ultra-low emissions long duty cycle (24/7 operation)

4 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Wide Spectrum of Combustion Science & Engineering Topics Combustion is humankinds oldest technology – reducing emissions and increasing efficiency present many challenges Combustion integrates multi-scale dynamic interactions between chemistry, thermodynamics, and fluid mechanics Combustion R&D targets specific needs of each energy sector Chemistry: Fuel Type: solid, liquid, gas Oxidizer: air, O 2, diluents Combustion mode: Premixed, Non-premixed, Partially premixed Thermodynamics : Phase change, heat release Inflow temperature and pressure Fluid mechanics : steady flows, transient flows, velocity, turbulence, & shear

5 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Near Term – Carbon Reduction by Fuel Switching Burning gaseous fossil fuel is cleanest and most efficient –Replacing coal with natural gas for electricity generation –Producing syngases from coal gasification –Vaporizing liquid fuels –Fueling land vehicles with gaseous fuels Reciprocating engines or fuel-cells –Charging electric land vehicles with electricity generated from natural gas and syngases Technology challenges –Developing fuel-flexible combustion systems –Meeting stringent emissions standards for stationary combustion systems –Fuel distribution and storage

6 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Near term – Increasing Efficiency to Reduce Carbon Increased firing pressure & temperature and reduce system losses –Gas turbines Ultra-low emissions combustion concepts Advance materials for higher temperature combustion –Waste heat recovery Technology integration: gas/steam turbines, gas turbines/fuel cells, gas turbine/steam boilers –Advanced reciprocating engines Direct injection, homogeneous charge compression ignition & active controls Challenges –Optimize emissions/efficiency trade-off

7 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Combustion Research at LBNL Chemistry –Combustion chemistry at the molecular scale (CSD and EETD) –Detailed chemical measurements of low pressure flames using soft X-ray probes (ALS) –Chemical mechanisms for flame modeling (EETD) Premixed Turbulent Flames –Numerical simulations (CRD) –Fundamental studies of flame/turbulence interactions and technology transfer (EETD)

8 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Bridging Science-Technology Gap LBNLs low-swirl burner evolved from laboratory tool to clean combustion technology –Developed for basic studies of flame/turbulence interactions supports stable ultra-low NO x lean premixed flames –Scientific underpinnings facilitate adaptation to 5 kW to 200 MW systems residential furnaces & water heaters commercial & industrial heaters gas turbines operating on natural gas, digester gas, syngases & H 2 Petroleum refining process heaters –Enabling technology for next- generation advanced combustion systems Low-swirl injector for Taurus 70 gas turbine

9 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Low-Swirl Burner Exploits Self-Propelling Nature of Turbulent Premixed Flame LSB swirler Quartz combustor

10 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Technology Transfer Provides Useful Feedback to Prioritize Basic Research Natl. Labs./University/Industry collaboration to develop low-swirl burner for high- hydrogen fuel gas turbines in clean coal power plants –Turbulent flame studies at gas turbine conditions –Chemical kinetics of H 2 and syngases –Heat release models for H 2 and syngas Laminar and turbulent flames Turbulence effects on NO x –High fidelity computational tools for engineering design Challenges –High-hydrogen fuel systems operate in combustion regimes outside of traditional engineering design practices Simulations (top) gives a window into combustion processes that cannot be measured by experiments (bottom)

11 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Carbon Cycle 2.0 Combustion Science & Technology Loop HeatingPower*Land & Sea transport Aviation Fuel Treatment/ Generation Biomass gasification cleanup Coal/Biomass gasification cleanup Bio-diesel Bio-gasoline Bio-jet fuels Combustion Chemistry Turbulent Combustion Fluid Mechanics Stationary premixed flames at atmospheric condition Stationary premixed flames at high P & T Transient and stationary premixed flames at high P& T Stationary partially premixed flames at high P & T Technology Needs Fuel-flexible burners Airfoils, fuel- flexible burners, advanced materials Battery, new concept IC engines, controls Fuel atomizer and injector Combustion Devices Furnaces, Ovens 10 kW – 30+ MW Gas turbines 100 kW – 400 MW Recip-engines gas turbines 60 kW - 7 MW Prop engines Jet engines up to 22 MW * Exclude direct coal-fired systems chemical kinetics and transport Transfer Feedback

12 Combustion and CC 2.0| Feb. 3, 2010 Long Term – Examples of Combustion Technology Needs Reciprocating and jet engines for bio-fuels –Combustion properties of biofuels dictate their suitability for advanced concepts (e.g. HCCI engines) Near-zero emissions coal power plants –gasification and separation technologies –ultra-low emission fuel-flexible gas turbines –carbon capture and storage technologies Fuel-cell/gas-turbines hybrid systems Opportunities for LBNL –New simulation capabilities offer game-changing possibilities for designing new combustion systems –Combustion chemistry of bio-fuels and renewable fuels –Advance materials and electro-chemistry

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