Presentation on theme: "LNG – Science and Technology in use for Energy Development in Qatar Presented to Qatar Academy 10 March 2009 James Baldwin Head of Environmental Affairs."— Presentation transcript:
LNG – Science and Technology in use for Energy Development in Qatar Presented to Qatar Academy 10 March 2009 James Baldwin Head of Environmental Affairs Qatargas
2 PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Science and technology and how it relates to energy supply Global energy issues Where energy comes from and is used How Qatargas uses science and technology to supply energy to the world Benefits and challenges in energy supply
3 Science can resolve difficult issues Energy is a major global issue (demand and supply). Energy demand , supply : tech and science are needed to help us meet these challenges Major energy reserves - oil and gas (or even renewable energy such as wind and solar) often located far from those using the energy. No more “easy” energy Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) technology helps address this problem. Key Words: Energy demand/supply Energy Advanced Technology (LNG)
4 A Snapshot of Global Electric Power Usage - night sky The U.S. has 5% of the world’s population, produces 17% of the world’s energy, and consumes 24% of the world’s energy (distribution/share) Why is science and energy important to global economic, political, environmental factors
Climate change awareness is increasing
Oil and Natural Gas Formation (fossil fuel) How was natural gas formed? Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into: –coal, some into oil, and some into natural gas Natural gas is mainly methane, a gas composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.
What Does Qatargas Produce? LNG (CH 4 ) - non toxic, odourless, lighter than air, disperses if released to atmosphere. LNG is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. Created by chilling natural gas to -161°C: from gas to liquid. This reduces the volume! This makes it economic to transport by ship.
Why is LNG important and useful? –LNG occupies 600 times less volume than non-liquefied gas. –Like shrinking volume of a beach ball to a ping-pong ball.
LNG: a “Clean” Fuel Fewer GHG and emissions than coal and oil. Lower particulate emissions (dust) than diesel or oil. Diesel more than 20 carbon atoms: LNG one carbon atom. Gaseous fuels risk of spillage or discharge into sensitive habitats. Lower environmental footprint/effect
Where does LNG come from in Qatar? North Field - one of the largest natural gas fields in the world. ±10% of the world’s known reserves of gas. Qatargas will be largest LNG producer in the world.
Qatargas’ Offshore Facilities 100+ people Helicopter and ship access Environmental Issues? Some air emissions Waste management Environmental benefits? Artificial reef!
Gas and Oil in Qatar 100 Dukhan Kilometers Pipelines Ras Laffan Mesaieed Doha Qatarga s (80+ km)
LNG ships are huge! TRANSPORTATION OF LNG
QATAR LNG EXPORTS BY 2010
Environmental issues of making and using LNG? Air –GHGs, –NOx ( O 3 ) Water Land
LNG Environmental Issues / Concerns Qatargas works very hard to reduce its effect on the environment. Air –Flare reduction to near zero. –Air quality monitoring. Smokeless Flaring –Provides safety valve for excess gas to quickly leave the plant. –Use technology smoke and emissions produced by burning gas. –Very important for air quality.
Offshore Effects and Issues Offshore Platforms If poorly designed and managed can affect marine environment Can have a positive effect Creation of artificial reef environment
Habitats of Value in Qatar Marine Environment –Coral reefs, seagrass (used by?), mangrove (used by?) –Shipping lanes (shared use) Land –Sandy and rocky deserts (used by?) –Urban environments Value $ Threats (natural environment) Air! Its importance and movement: global? How do industry and our own actions affect ecosystems? –Population increase –Urbanization –Roads –Beach loss
Energy and Our Own Actions Responsible energy use and environmental choices apply to us all All of our actions play a part in energy use and climate change We all use and NEED energy and its use has global effects BUT our actions in terms of water and electricity conservation, recycling, responsible consumption can make a big difference ± Switch them off