Presentation on theme: "Recycling Waste Heat – CHP as an alternative"— Presentation transcript:
1Recycling Waste Heat – CHP as an alternative Wednesday, March 2, 2005Waste Heat to Power Generation WorkshopUniversity of California - IrvinePatti W. GarlandOak Ridge National Laboratoryfor U.S. Department of Energy
2Combined Heat and Power CHP is the generation of electricity and heat sequentially from the same energy input.Electricity primarily used on-site, but some can be sold back to grid. Grid can serve as back-up or swing provider.Thermal energy used for heating/cooling or dehumidification or for process applications.CHP uses all technologies and all fuels.The “waste” heat can be recycled to drive thermally activated technologies
3Advantages of CHPCHP is more efficient than separate generation of electricity and heat.Higher efficiency translates to lower operating cost, but requires capital investment.On-site electric generation reduces grid congestion and avoids distribution costs.Higher efficiency reduces emissions of pollutants.Increased reliability and power quality can also add significant value.
4Typical CHP Systems Steam Boiler/Steam Turbine: Gas Turbine or Engine/Heat Recovery Unit:But there are lots of other things you can do - waste heat, recycling energy, ethylene
5U.S. DOE CHP Vision and Technology Roadmap By 2010, double the amount of CHP capacity in the United States1998, 46GW , 92GWOur CHP activities are guided by the actions identified in the National CHP Roadmap as those items required of us to meet the CHP GoalRaise CHP AwarenessEliminate Regulatory and Institutional BarriersDevelop CHP Markets and Technologies
7Installed CHP in 2004 81,000 MW at 2,866 sites Average capacity is 28 MWMedian capacity is 2.0 MW64% of installed capacity is in systems greater than 100 MW2% of installed capacity is in systems smaller than 5 MW
8Existing CHP Represents 8% of the Nation’s Electric Generating Capacity Existing CHP Capacity (2004): 81,000 MWSource: Energy and Environmental Analysis
9CHP Uses a Wide Range of Fuels…. Existing CHP Capacity (2004): 81,000 MWWaste10%Wood/Biomass3%Other2%Oil2%Coal14%Natural Gas69%Source: Energy and Environmental Analysis
10…and a Wide Range of Technologies Existing CHP Capacity (2004): 81,000 MWRecipEngine2%Other< 1%GasTurbine19%Boiler/Steam Turbine31%CombinedCycle48%Source: Energy and Environmental Analysis
11DE Activities Directly Supporting the Advancement of the CHP Goal Improved Generation and Heat UtilizationIntegrated Energy SystemsEnd Use ApplicationsCHP Outreach and Market Development
12Improved Generation and Heat Utilization 2000MicroturbinesFuel Cells,Photovoltaics,Wind,HydropowerOthers$900-$1,200/kW17-30% Efficiency.35 lbs/MWh NOx2007Cost competitive with the market40% Efficiency.15 lbs/MWh NOx1992Gas Turbines2000Reciprocating Engines29% efficiency+2 lbs/MWh NOx$600/kW$300-$400/kW25-40% Efficiency2-3 lbs/MWh NOx200138% Efficiency0.15 lbs/MWh NOx$400/kW20072010Cost competitive with the market50% Efficiency0.15 lbs/MWh NOxCost competitive with the market<<.15 lbs/ MWh NOx
13Integrated Energy Systems (IES) Integrated Energy Systems for CHPcombinations of dissimilar subsystems designed or assembled so they work together with higher efficiency and/or lower cost than they would operate individuallyOvercome regulatory, institutional, and market barriersPackaged systems—“plug and play”Modular components factory tested and integrated easing field installationDevelop model integrated energy systems having 70% efficiency with at least 4 year payback that are easily replicable
14Seven Packaged Systems (IES) Projects Four Up and Running in 2004 Honeywell Laboratories – Fort Bragg, NC5 MW turbine generator integrated with 1,200 RT waste-heat driven absorption chillerBurns and McDonnell – Austin Energy5.2 MW turbine generator integrated with 2,500 RT waste heat fired absorption cooling with greater than 70% efficiencyUTRC– A&P Supermarket, New YorkCombination of off the shelf components for packaged system—PureComfortTM now commercially available4, 5, or 6 Capstone 60 Microturbines coupled with 110 to 155 RT Carrier absorption chillers. Also considering refrigeration, desiccants, and thermal storage systemsGas Technology InstituteEngine generator (290 kW to 770 kW) integrated with absorption chiller. Testing underway at GTI.
15Residential Integrated Energy Systems Four Micro-CHP projects awarded in FY04Heating and PowerECR International – Water based Rankine Cycle, 3kW electric, 40 kW thermalTIAX – 2kW Stirling Engine based system with space heat and hot waterCooling Heating and PowerAMTI – 4.7 kW IC Engine, space heat, hot water and thermally activated desiccant system coupled with conventional ACUTRC – Micro CHP equipment assessment and evaluation for optimized residential systems
17Healthcare Sector Butler Hospital (Providence, RI) UTC Pure Comfort System ( 4 – C60 microturbines) with 110-ton absorption chillerPartners: UTC Power, Carrier Corporation, Witham & Associates, New England Gas, CDH EnergyEastern Maine Medical Center (Bangor, ME)Gas Turbine (4.4 MW) to generate 24,000 lb/hr of steam and drive a 500-ton absorption chiller.Partners: Solar Turbines, Cianbro Corp., Vanderweil Engineers, Univ. of Maine, IDEAMetropolitan Hospital (Grand Rapids, MI)Novi EnergyReciprocating engines (2 MW) with an absorption chiller.Partners: Inland Detroit Diesel, GE Jenbacher, Honeywell, Stanley Consultants, Workstage, and NTH Consultants.
18Educational Facilities Ramapo College (Mahwah, NJ)GTIReciprocating engines (1.6 MW) to generate steam and operate an absorption chiller.Partners: Preventive Maintenance Services, CDH Energy Corp., Public Service Electric and Gas, Attainment Technologies, Monsen Engineering, Ramapo College of New JerseyPepperell High School (Floyd County, GA)SEMCOReciprocating engine (200 kW) coupled with four, integrated active desiccant HVAC systemsPartners: C&M Engineering, Floyd County Schools, and Hess Microgen
19Hotels and Supermarkets Ritz Carton Hotel, San Francisco, CAGTIUTC Pure Comfort System (4 C-60 microturbines) and 110 ton absorption chiller.Partners: UTC Power, Pacific Gas & Electric, Carrier Commercial SystemsSheraton Hotel Complex (Rancho Mirage, CA)Energy Concepts CompanyReciprocating engine (200 kW) + a microturbine (250 kW) and absorption chillers.Partners: Shenandoah Springs Village, Desert Power Partners, and Ingersoll-Rand.Raley’s Supermarket (Loomis, CA)TIAX LLCReciprocating engine (280 kW) with absorption cooling Partners are Hess Microgen
20Utilities Basin Electric (Flasher, ND) Gas Technology Institute Pipeline Compressor stationGas Turbine with an Organic Rankine CycleProvides power quality improvements to local hospital in remote location
21DEMONSTRATION Site: Los Angeles, CA Product: Chrome plating shop Utility: Southern California Gas CompanyPower Gen.: Four 30 kW Capstone micro-turbinesHeat Rec.: Hot water for plating tank heating and exhaust is re-used for sludge dryingOperation: base loadedStatus: Data collection started June 2002Comments: Other plating companies interested in this configuration. Customer is pursuing use of absorption chiller with system.
22Higgins Brick Factory Chino Hills, CA Cons. Utility: SoCal GasPower Gen.: Three 80 kW Bowman micro-turbinesHeat Rec.: Indirect heat exchange to pre-heat kiln comb. airOperation: Three base loaded turbines 24/7Status: System commissioning in-progressComments: Demonstrates waste heat recovery for process heating . Operation scheduled to begin in Summer 04Simmax Energy is planning to provide energy services to the plant
23University of Maryland, ORNL and University of Maryland Collaborate on Integrating CHP Systems into a Commercial BuildingUniversity of Maryland,College Park
24Integration Test Center and User Facility at ORNL
25CHP Outreach and Market Development Activities Raising CHP AwarenessRegional Initiatives and CHP Application Centers (SEP)Annual CHP Roadmap Meeting and Policy DayParticipation in trade shows, meetings and educational activities for targeted audiencesEliminating Regulatory and Institutional BarriersAir regulations, environmental permittingResearch on emissions permitting, Environmental permitting screening tool, Review of environmental models, Develop Regulatory Requirements Database for Electric GeneratorsInterconnection requirementsUtility interconnection practicesSite permitting, tax treatmentAnalyze cost and financing of DG/CHP, Review of DG siting proceduresCostly standby and backup power chargesElectric rate primer, Review of States’ CHP activitiesDeveloping Markets (Targeted Markets Identified)Baseline CHP installationsAssess technical and economic potentialIdentify the value proposition
26Regulatory Requirements Database for Electric Generators Click on any state to access state specific information on DG permitting issues, or click on the state name in the drop box below: Please Note: The information for this database was obtained through a combination of interviews with state permitting officials and review of state permitting regulations. This database is a work in progress. Please check back frequently for updates. This work is being done for the U.S. Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. While the information is believed to be accurate, always verify information with appropriate regulatory agencies. This site is best viewed with Microsoft's Internet Explorer 6.0Regulatory Requirements Database for Electric GeneratorsSpecific Issues:EMISSIONS REGULATIONS STATE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS SITING REGULATIONS EXIT FEES STANDBY RATES BUILDING, ZONING, AND FIRE CODES AMMONIA ISSUES REPORTING REQUIREMENTS ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
28The Opportunity for Alternative CHP Fuels High natural gas prices have decreased spark spreads and reduced CHP market potentialProposed solutions focus on increasing natural gas supply or reducing demand, neither will likely help much in the short runRenewable portfolio standards, public benefit funding, and other renewable incentives are spurring investment in biomass fueled projects
29Natural Gas Prices Have Risen and Are Expected to Stay High Source: EIA and NYMEX
30Alternative Solution: Develop Other, Cost-Effective Fuels Opportunity Fuel: any fuel that has the potential to be used for economically-viable power generation, but is not traditionally used for this purposeOpportunity fuels include:Landfill GasMunicipal Solid WasteOrimulsionPetroleum CokeSludge WasteTextile WasteTire-Derived FuelWellhead GasWoodWood WasteAnaerobic Digester GasBiomass GasBlack LiquorBlast Furnace GasCoalbed MethaneCoke Oven GasCrop ResiduesFood Processing WasteIndustrial VOC's
31Processing Technology Key to Use of Opportunity Fuels Source: Resource Dynamics
32Why are Opportunity Fuels Not Used More Often? Availability of fuel source often inconsistent in volume and in quality, resulting in variations in fuel volume, BTU content, and contaminantsOften requires changes (adding $) to generating equipment or purchasing processing equipment (digester, filtration, gasifier)Site where fuel is located has little thermal and/or electric demandCosts to transport fuel to ideal site can kill projectsProducing/processing fuel can be labor intensiveTechnology not yet commercialized for small-scale use in U.S.
33Opportunity Fuel Performance Chart: Selecting the Top Candidates
34DOE CHP Vision/Technology Roadmap REGIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS:Raise CHP Awareness - Create new and support existing CHP awareness efforts by Regional and State GroupsConduct a coordinated outreach campaign to educate architects, building designers, and local building and other code officials about CHPProvide SWAT team technical assistances to those interested in installing CHP Systems
35Regional Application Centers The regional application centers will promote combined heating and power (CHP) technology and practices, serve as a central repository and clearinghouse of CHP information, and identify and help implement regional CHP projects.MidwestNortheastNorthwestPacificOurs are truly “national programs”Have accomplished much over the yearsCapable of doing even more in the years aheadMid AtlanticIntermountainSoutheasternGulf Coast
36RAC Services Offered Education and Outreach Project Support Websites (Available & Updated)Focused Training and Educational CoursesWorkshops / ConferencesRegulatory InteractionsProject SupportSite Evaluations (Screening)Application Analysis (Tech / Financial)Technical AssistanceOther Activities
37Industrial Assessment Centers Strengthen interface between IAC and RAC – increase small industrial marketTraining on CHP for IACsIncorporate CHP into IAC assessment recommendations where appropriate, conversely encourage RACs to recommend IAC assessments where appropriateIntroduce engineering students to CHP – broaden the workforceThe IAC program enables small/medium-sized manufacturers to have comprehensive energy, waste and productivity assessments performed at no cost. Recommendations from these assessments have averaged $55,000 in potential annual savings for each manufacturer.Within Standard Industrial Codes (SIC)Gross annual sales below $100 million.Fewer than 500 employees at the plant site.Annual energy bills from $100,000 to $2 million.No professional in-house staff to perform assessment.
38Team Work for Success Markets Tools Initiatives FEMP DOE - DE EPA HUD Nat LabsVAFEMPRACsHUDInitiativesStatesUSCHPATech Dev.MarketsPolicyToolsFuelsFor more information: