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1 the "forever fuel" that we can never run out of HYDROGEN Water + energy hydrogen + oxygen Hydrogen + oxygen water + energy.

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Presentation on theme: "1 the "forever fuel" that we can never run out of HYDROGEN Water + energy hydrogen + oxygen Hydrogen + oxygen water + energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 the "forever fuel" that we can never run out of HYDROGEN Water + energy hydrogen + oxygen Hydrogen + oxygen water + energy

2 2 Hydrogen is ~75% of the known universe  Hydrogen is ~75% of the known universe  On earth, it’s not an energy source like oil or coal Only an energy carrier like electricity or gasoline — Only an energy carrier like electricity or gasoline — a form of energy, derived from a source, that can be a form of energy, derived from a source, that can be moved around moved around  The most versatile energy carrier - Can be made from any source and used for any - Can be made from any source and used for any service service - Readily stored in large amounts - Readily stored in large amounts  Almost never found by itself; must be liberated - “Reform” HCs or CHs with heat and catalysts - “Reform” HCs or CHs with heat and catalysts - “Electrolyze” water (split H 2 O with electricity) - “Electrolyze” water (split H 2 O with electricity) - Experimental methods: photolysis, plasma, - Experimental methods: photolysis, plasma, microorganisms,… microorganisms,…  1 kg of H 2 contains same energy as 1 U.S. gallon of gasoline, which weighs not 2.2 but 6.2 pounds of gasoline, which weighs not 2.2 but 6.2 pounds Why is hydrogen so important?

3 3 Present uses of hydrogen Most used in petroleum refining and petrochemical production (93%) other uses metal processing (2.7%) manufacture of electronics components (1.5%) food processing (.7 %) manufacture of glass (.3%) utility power generation (.2%)

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5 5 Is it safe?: A primer on Hydrogen safety All fuels are hazardous, but…  All fuels are hazardous, but… Hydrogen is comparably or less so, but  Hydrogen is comparably or less so, but different: different:  Clear flame can’t sear you at a distance; no smoke smoke  Hard to make explode; can’t explode in free air; burns first air; burns first  22× less explosive power  Rises, doesn’t puddle Hindenburg myth (1937) – nobody was killed  Hindenburg myth (1937) – nobody was killed by hydrogen fire by hydrogen fire  Completely unrelated to hydrogen bombs

6 6 History of hydrogen as energy 1820 – H 2 combustion in a engine like device to do mechanical work – better than a steam engine as no warm-up time was needed 1874 – science fiction prediction that hydrogen would be the chief fuel after coal by decomposing water using electricity 1900 – first lab experiments with electrolysis 1920 – Large scale plants in Canada using hydro-electricity from Niagara Falls to make hydrogen. Company was Stuart Electrolyzer that is still in the business today (same family) 1923 – hydrogen from wind generated electricity in England to avoid pollution from coal fired power plants. Hydrogen stored as a cryogenic liquid – hydrogen used as a fuel for vehicles in Germany 1930 – hydrogen distributed in pipelines in Germany 1930s – hydrogen used in mixtures (usually injected into the cylinders) with liquid fuels to markedly increase engine power. Work done in Germany 1950 – first hydrogen/air fuel cell in lab in England 1962 – fuel cell work in Germany in connection with splitting water with solar energy 1962 – proposal to use solar energy to make hydrogen for fuel cells in urban areas to generate electricity General Motors proposed using the fuel cell in passenger cars to replace the gasoline engine

7 7 The First Question: Where Does Hydrogen Come From? 95% of hydrogen is currently produced by steam reforming Partial Oxidation Steam Reforming Electrolysis Thermochemical Fossil Fuels Water Biomass currently most energy efficient requires improvements not cost effective requires high temperatures Gasification Microbial requiresimprovements slowkinetics

8 8 Steam Reforming of Methane

9 9 Steam Reforming of Methane, cont. CH 4 + H 2 O  CO + 3H 2  H 298 = 206 kJ/mol Water gas shift reaction CO + H 2 O  CO 2 + H 2  H 298 = -41kJ/mol Catalysts: Ni, or Au-Ni

10 10 Water electrolysis

11 11 Electrode types

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13 13 The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier or fuel requires development of: Production Delivery Storage Conversion End-Use Applications

14 14 HYDROGEN IN TRANSPORTATION

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16 16 Hydrogen cars will be cheaper per mile driven

17 17 Hydrogen Hybrids? While almost all HEV’s are powered with gasoline today, they can also be efficiently powered with hydrogen. In fact, the Ford Motor Company has demonstrated up to 25% higher efficiency with an ICE designed specifically to run on hydrogen compared to a similar gasoline ICE. A hydrogen- powered HEV can achieve 95% to 99% of the environmental benefits and 100% of the oil reduction advantages of a fuel cell vehicle. Indeed, the hydrogen HEV has two major advantages over the FCV:  The hydrogen HEV is based on proved 100+ year- old ICE technology  The hydrogen HEV cost is much less than the FCV cost today Liquid Hydrogen filling station at Munich airport (Germany)

18 18 Ford U-Concept Hydrogen powered internal combustion engine

19 19 Hydrogen Storage

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