Presentation on theme: "NFPA 72 Mass Notification Regulations"— Presentation transcript:
1NFPA 72 Mass Notification Regulations November 10, 2011
2Acentech Incorporated is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.November 10, 2011
3NFPAIntroduction:Today we are going to discuss some of the changes to 2010 NFPA 72 document and its addition of Emergency Communication Systems.We want to give an overview of the changes that designers need to know about.Our primary focus will be to discuss how speech intelligibility has been added to the code and is now a required part of the NFPA 72 document.It discusses the speech intelligibility requirements and how they will be needed in acoustically distinguishable spaces.Two main points:1. It’s now required2. How do you accomplish it?
4NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION AGENCY - Organization was established in 1896 BackgroundNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION AGENCY- Organization was established in 1896PUBLICATIONS- NFPA 70 (aka NEC)- NFPA 72NFPA 72- Document first published in 1993- Was known as the “National Fire Alarm Code”- Consolidated 6 individual standards documents, including EVACSEVACS- Emergency/Voice Alarm Communications Systems- First published in EVACS had to be a dedicated voice communications system for use only in the event of a fire - Notification systems were horns or bells - Sound quality was not a design factor; “Intelligible” did not appear in NFPA 72 until 1999EVOLUTION OF NFPA 72- Reflected realizations that fire was not the only hazard to which building occupants need notifications- Mass Notification Systems evolved due to ‘96 bombing of Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia, September 11th attacks, and Columbine High School and Virginia Tech shootings.Today NFPA is called “National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code”
5Mass Notification Systems NFPA 72, 2007Mass Notification SystemsProvide “real-time information and instructions to people in a building, area, site, or installation using intelligible voice communications along with visible signals, text, and graphics, and possibly including tactile or other communication methods”DoD UFC2007 revision introduced Mass Notification Systems- Annex - MNS developed by US Military through the Department of Defense - “Annex” = term provided for informational purposes only. “these are recommended”, but not considered mandatory requirements
6Approved by ANSI in 2009 Chapter 24 NFPA 72, 2010 Emergency Communications Systems (ECS)ECS = EVACS + MNSANSI = American National Standards InstituteEVACS = Emergency/Voice Alarm Communications SystemsMSN = Mass Notification SystemsECS is intended to communicate information about emergencies (fire, natural disasters, accidents, etc).
7NFPA 72, 2010Chapter 24 establishes “Minimum required levels of performance, reliability, and quality of installation for ECS but does not establish the only methods by which these requirements are to be achieved.”Ex: Controls, Ancillary Functions, Pathway Survivability, and…Voice Evacuation Messages:Sound System RequirementsMinimum Required Levels, Pathway Survivability (redundancy for cabling),Sound System Rqmt’s:- Speaker layout must be designed to ensure intelligibility and audibilityAHJ (or facility owner) may expect ECS to exceed these requirements
8Intelligible Voice Messages NFPA 72, 2010Intelligible Voice Messages“Emergency communications systems shall be capable of the reproduction of prerecorded, synthesized, or live messages with voice intelligibility”
9Speech Intelligibility Intelligible Voice Messages“Intelligible”Metrics:Common Intelligibility Scale (CIS)Speech Transmission Index (STI)Speech Transmission Index for Public Address (STI-PA)RApid Speech Transmission Index (RASTI)Articulation Index (AI)AlCons (Percent Articulation of Consonants)Discuss definition of “Intelligible”Intelligible vs AudibleConcept of intelligibility first introduced in NFPA 1999 appendixMetrics…
10Speech Intelligibility Speech Transmission Index & Common Intelligibility ScaleCommonly used metrics0.50 STI = 0.70 CISExample: STIThese methods are meant to be absolute measures of intelligibility.Some are subject based (use human listeners); other methods use instrumentation.0.5 STI = 0.70 CIS.5 STI is subjectively defined as “fair”is “good”> .75 is “excellent
11Speech Intelligibility “The intelligibility of an emergency communication system is considered acceptable if at least 90 percent of the measurement locations within each ADS (acoustically distinguishable space) have a measured STI of not less than 0.45 (0.65 CIS) and an average STI of not less than 0.50 STI (0.70 CIS).”-NFPA 2010 Annex DExample: STI
12Acoustically Distinguishable Spaces “distinguished from other spaces due to acoustical, environmental or use characteristics, such as reverberation time and ambient sound pressure level”
13Acoustically Distinguishable Spaces MIT Sloan School of Management, Bruner/Cott Architects and Planners
14Acoustically Distinguishable Spaces Logan Airport, Terminal A, HOK
163-Legged Approach Three aspects of Acoustics, All 3 must be dealt with to achieve an effective Emergency Communication System3 variables of speech intelligibility1. Room acoustics2. Noise control (HVAC)3. Sound System
26Sound Systems Loudspeakers 3 different spaces and 3 different loudspeaker types used.Same sound quality achieved through the sound system by using the proper loudspeakers, signal processing, other toolsMiami International Airport: Terminal H Improvements, Rodriguez and Quiroga Architects; South Terminal Expansion, Borrelli + Partners
27Sound Systems3 different spaces and 3 different loudspeaker types used.Same sound quality achieved through the sound system by using the proper loudspeakers, signal processing, other tools
28Sound Systems3 different spaces and 3 different loudspeaker types used.Same sound quality achieved through the sound system by using the proper loudspeakers, signal processing, other tools
29Sound Systems3 different spaces and 3 different loudspeaker types used.Same sound quality achieved through the sound system by using the proper loudspeakers, signal processing, other tools
30Understanding the Tools Sound SystemsUnderstanding the Tools
31Loudspeakers Specifications Types Loudspeakers specifications: Sound SystemsLoudspeakersSpecificationsTypesHornsFull-range “Box” EnclosuresLoudspeakers specifications:Directivity/patternFrequency responseEfficiency, Peak power, etc.Loudspeaker Types:HornsVery good directivity controlWide assortment of patterns availableLimited frequency response (not “Hi Fi”).Full-range “Box” EnclosuresMore “musical” than hornPattern control through full frequency range is typically limited.Ex: A loudspeaker may be good at controlling high and/or mid-range frequencies but have very little control over low frequencies.
32Sound Systems Types (cont.) Steerable Column Loudspeakers Line Arrays Overall small width and depth, but very tall.Better control over frequency range when taller loudspeakers are usedCustom tailor the loudspeaker’s coverage area.Typically vertical direction onlyVery helpful in reverberant acoustical environmentsExpensiveFrequency response of loudspeaker can be limitedLine ArraysStack-able.Full-range loudspeakers & subsTypically, each has a wide horizontal & narrow verticalPattern becomes more narrow vertically as you add more speakers to the arrayMost commonly used loudspeaker for touring actsCommonly touted as the “best”, not always the case
33Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Sound SystemsMixersDigital Signal Processing (DSP)Amplifiers
34Sound Systems Equipment rack rooms will be needed 75 to 100 square feet minimumProper coordination with- Mechanical for conditioning- Electrical engineers for power
37Speech Intelligibility Prediction 3D Computer ModelingUsed to verify various sound system and acoustic design elements.Verify correct loudspeaker angles for proper coverage.Predict sound pressure level (SPL)Predict STI score
38Speech Intelligibility Prediction 3D Computer ModelingUsed to verify various sound system and acoustic design elements.Verify how loudspeaker should be positioned.Predict sound pressure level (SPL)Predict intelligibility
39Speech Intelligibility Prediction 3D Computer ApplicationsEASEBose ModelerCATT-AcousticOdeon
43Speech Intelligibility Prediction Constructed model in 3DApplied acoustical properties to each surfaceInserted Loudspeakers
44Speech Intelligibility Prediction “Hot” = More direct sound from loudspeakers“Cool” = Less soundLoudspeakers provide even coverage to the public seating areas but…Reflections from rear wallReflections from side wallIdentifying Potential Problem Areas
48Intelligibility Measurement Standalone ToolsSoftware based toolsAHJ often hires a 3rd party to measure the intelligibilityPlymouth State Ice Arena, Sasaki Associates
49In summary,Discussed the changes to the NFPA 72 document and the new requirements relating to speech intelligibility.In order to achieve speech intelligibility, there are three legs that include Room Acoustics, HVAC Noise Control, and Sound SystemsThat there are tools available that can be used to predict SIAnd that other tools are available to measure intelligibility in the field.
50Questions? Thank you for your time. November 10, 2011