Presentation on theme: "Procedures and Operations 9 March 2005. Traffic Patterns Tower-controlled airports Towers provide for orderly arrival and departure to/from airports the."— Presentation transcript:
Procedures and Operations 9 March 2005
Traffic Patterns Tower-controlled airports Towers provide for orderly arrival and departure to/from airports the tower will issue instructions for desired flight path clearances must be received before takeoff or landing No control tower Pilots self-announce position and intentions on a common traffic frequency All traffic uses a left traffic pattern un otherwise indicated
Traffic Patterns An organized method of arriving and departing from airports Denoted either left or right by the direction of the turns Left traffic is standard
Traffic Patterns Airplanes land into the wind! Segmented circle indicates traffic pattern direction and wind direction Wind cones, wind tees, and windsocks indicate the direction of the wind. The large end of the wind sock points into the wind
Airport Markings Runway naming is determined by the approach direction To find a runway number, round magnetic heading to nearest ten and lop off a zero. If the final approach course is 267°, the runway will be runway 27. (All runway #s are 1-36) Runways have letters when there are two or three parallel runways. In this case, they are labeled L, R, C, for left, right and center.
Airport Markings Threshold – beginning of a runway available for landing of aircraft. Those runways that do not have thresholds at the beginning of the runway have displaced thresholds. The area between the beginning of the runway and the displaced threshold may be used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing rollout, but not for landing. Closed runways will be marked by an X at either end.
Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) Found at airports with a runway intersecting another runway, taxiway, or other point Allows increased airport capacity Student pilots or those unfamiliar with LAHSO should not accept a clearance PIC (duh) has final authority to accept or decline any LAHSO clearance LAHSO distances available in the Airport/Facilities Directory (A/FD) LAHSO clearances only issued when ceiling is at least 1000 feet and 3 sm visibility
Airport Lighting At night – location of an airport can be determined by a rotating beacon White and green – lighted land airport White and yellow – Lighted water airport Green yellow white – lighted heliport Military land airport – dual peaked white then green
Airport Lighting Beacons are operated during daylight hours if: Less than 1000 foot ceiling Visibility less than 3 miles Runway edge lights Outline runway at night/low vis. Radio control of lighting Available per the AF/D Key the mike 7, 5, or 3 times…
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) Indicates your relationship to the glidepath Grim mnemonic: White over white: Youre out of sight Red over white: youre all right Red over red: youre dead!
Other approach slope indicators Tricolor VASI (rare) Amber = too high Green = on path Red = Too low Pulsating VASI (rare) Pulsating white = Above glide path Steady white = On glide path Red/pulsating red = below glide path Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) 4 lights More white = higher
Surface Operations Dont let the wind flip your airplane over. Expose the top of the control surfaces to the wind whenever possible
Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD) Published every 56 days Contains all public use airports, seaplane bases, and heliports Includes communications data, navigational facilities, and special notices and procedures Telegraphic – use the legend!
Fitness for Flight / Aeromedical Hypoxia – symptoms include: Headache Drowsiness Euphoria Vertigo 14 CFR 91.211: O2 requirements 12,500-14,000 MSL: O2 must be used by flight crew for time in excess of 30 minutes in that range >14,000 MSL: O2 used by flight crew always >15,000 MSL: O2 provided to every occupant
Aeromedical Factors Hyperventilation Deficiency of carbon dioxide Caused by extra deep breathing due to anxiety, tension, fear Overcome by: Breathing into a bag Talking out loud Consciously slowing breathing rate
Aeromedical Factors Carbon Monoxide Poisoning CO: colorless, odorless, tasteless Symptoms: Headache Drowsiness Dizziness Susceptibility increases with altitude Think you have CO poisoning? Turn off heater! Open air vents! Dont die.
Aeromedical Factors Spatial Disorientation Caused by: Complex motions/apparent motions Vestibular disorientation… Visual scenes Seat of the pants inherently unreliable Overcome by: Rely on your flight instruments! Ignore sensory input.
Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Systematic method for determining whether an individual is fit to fly for a particular flight and to help a flight be completed/continued safely
Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Five hazardous attitudes / antidotes Antiauthority Follow the rules, they are usually right. Impulsivity Not so fast. Think first. Invulnerability It could happen to me. Machismo Taking chances is foolish. Resignation I can make a difference.
Compass Errors Variation Deviation Magnetic Dip
Dip errors Magnetic dip: When turning north from an easterly or westerly heading, the compass lags behind the actual aircraft heading. When a turn is initiated while on a northerly heading, the compass first indicates a turn in the opposite direction. When turning south from an easterly or westerly heading, the compass leads the actual heading. When a turn is initiated on a southerly heading, the compass immediately leads ahead. Mnemonic: UNOS – undershoot north, overshoot south
Dip errors continued Accelerating or decelerating while heading either east or west will also cause compass errors. When accelerating on an east or west heading, the compass indicates a turn to the north. When decelerating on an east or west heading, the compass indicates a turn to the south. Mnemonic: ANDS – accelerate north, decelerate south. Compass accurate only in S&L, unaccelerated flight.
Variation Errors Magnetic poles do not coincide with geographic poles. Most places on Earth, the compass needle does not point to True North. Angular differences between magnetic north and true north are called variations and are displayed on aeronautical charts.
Deviation Errors The metal, electrical systems, and operating engine all create magnetic fields from the aircraft. Aircraft manufacturers install compensatory magnets to prevent most errors. Remaining errors are called deviation. A card in the aircraft will list the deviation at various different compass points.