2 Traffic Patterns Tower-controlled airports No control tower Towers provide for orderly arrival and departure to/from airportsthe tower will issue instructions for desired flight pathclearances must be received before takeoff or landingNo control towerPilots self-announce position and intentions on a common traffic frequencyAll traffic uses a “left” traffic pattern un otherwise indicated
3 Traffic PatternsAn organized method of arriving and departing from airportsDenoted either “left” or “right” by the direction of the turnsLeft traffic is standard
4 Traffic Patterns Airplanes land into the wind! Segmented circle indicates traffic pattern direction and wind directionWind cones, wind tees, and windsocks indicate the direction of the wind. The large end of the wind sock points into the wind
5 Airport Markings Runway naming is determined by the approach direction To find a runway number, round magnetic heading to nearest ten and lop off a zero. If the final approach course is 267°, the runway will be runway 27. (All runway #s are 1-36)Runways have letters when there are two or three parallel runways. In this case, they are labeled L, R, C, for left, right and center.
6 Airport MarkingsThreshold – beginning of a runway available for landing of aircraft.Those runways that do not have thresholds at the beginning of the runway have displaced thresholds.The area between the beginning of the runway and the displaced threshold may be used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing rollout, but not for landing.Closed runways will be marked by an “X” at either end.
7 Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) Found at airports with a runway intersecting another runway, taxiway, or other pointAllows increased airport capacityStudent pilots or those unfamiliar with LAHSO should not accept a clearancePIC (duh) has final authority to accept or decline any LAHSO clearanceLAHSO distances available in the Airport/Facilities Directory (A/FD)LAHSO clearances only issued when ceiling is at least 1000 feet and 3 sm visibility
8 Airport LightingAt night – location of an airport can be determined by a rotating beaconWhite and green – lighted land airportWhite and yellow – Lighted water airportGreen yellow white – lighted heliportMilitary land airport – dual peaked white then green
9 Airport Lighting Beacons are operated during daylight hours if: Less than 1000 foot ceilingVisibility less than 3 milesRunway edge lightsOutline runway at night/low vis.Radio control of lightingAvailable per the AF/D“Key the mike” 7, 5, or 3 times…
10 Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) Indicates your relationship to the glidepathGrim mnemonic:White over white: “You’re out of sight”Red over white: “you’re all right”Red over red: “you’re dead!”
11 Other approach slope indicators Tricolor VASI (rare)Amber = too highGreen = on pathRed = Too lowPulsating VASI (rare)Pulsating white = Above glide pathSteady white = On glide pathRed/pulsating red = below glide pathPrecision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)4 lightsMore white = higher
12 Surface Operations Don’t let the wind flip your airplane over. Expose the top of the control surfaces to the wind whenever possible
13 Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD) Published every 56 daysContains all public use airports, seaplane bases, and heliportsIncludes communications data, navigational facilities, and special notices and proceduresTelegraphic – use the legend!
14 Fitness for Flight / Aeromedical Hypoxia – symptoms include:HeadacheDrowsinessEuphoriaVertigo14 CFR : O2 requirements12,500-14,000 MSL:O2 must be used by flight crew for time in excess of 30 minutes in that range>14,000 MSL:O2 used by flight crew always>15,000 MSL:O2 provided to every occupant
15 Aeromedical Factors Hyperventilation Deficiency of carbon dioxide Caused by extra deep breathing due to anxiety, tension, fearOvercome by:Breathing into a bagTalking out loudConsciously slowing breathing rate
16 Aeromedical Factors Carbon Monoxide Poisoning CO: colorless, odorless, tastelessSymptoms:HeadacheDrowsinessDizzinessSusceptibility increases with altitudeThink you have CO poisoning?Turn off heater!Open air vents!Don’t die.
17 Aeromedical Factors Spatial Disorientation Caused by: Overcome by: Complex motions/apparent motionsVestibular disorientation…Visual scenes“Seat of the pants” inherently unreliableOvercome by:Rely on your flight instruments!Ignore sensory input.
18 Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Systematic method for determining whether an individual is fit to fly for a particular flight and to help a flight be completed/continued safely
19 Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Five hazardous attitudes / antidotesAntiauthority“Follow the rules, they are usually right.”Impulsivity“Not so fast. Think first.”Invulnerability“It could happen to me.”Machismo“Taking chances is foolish.”Resignation“I can make a difference.”
21 Dip errors Magnetic dip: When turning north from an easterly or westerly heading, the compass lags behind the actual aircraft heading. When a turn is initiated while on a northerly heading, the compass first indicates a turn in the opposite direction.When turning south from an easterly or westerly heading, the compass leads the actual heading. When a turn is initiated on a southerly heading, the compass immediately leads ahead.Mnemonic: UNOS – undershoot north, overshoot south
22 Dip errors continuedAccelerating or decelerating while heading either east or west will also cause compass errors.When accelerating on an east or west heading, the compass indicates a turn to the north.When decelerating on an east or west heading, the compass indicates a turn to the south.Mnemonic: ANDS – accelerate north, decelerate south.Compass accurate only in S&L, unaccelerated flight.
23 Variation Errors Magnetic poles do not coincide with geographic poles. Most places on Earth, the compass needle does not point to True North. Angular differences between magnetic north and true north are called variations and are displayed on aeronautical charts.
24 Deviation ErrorsThe metal, electrical systems, and operating engine all create magnetic fields from the aircraft.Aircraft manufacturers install compensatory magnets to prevent most errors. Remaining errors are called deviation.A card in the aircraft will list the deviation at various different compass points.