3Runway and Taxiway Designation Systems Runway numbers are taken from the compass bearing of approaching A/C rounded to the nearest 10º.There will always be a difference of 180º between opposite ends of a runway.Example: Runway 23 verses Runway 0523 is compass heading 230º and 05 is compass heading 050º.
4Runway and Taxiway Designation Systems Parallel runways are designated with L for left, R for right, and C for center.Taxiways are usually designated by letters, numbers or a combination.They are not standardized but are determined locally.*Locally they run from the river to the far end as A,B (Tower), C, D, E(Wash rack), F.
7Lighting and Marking Systems Blue Lights- outline taxiways and are located off the edge 100’ apart.White Lights- Outline runways and are 200’ apart.Green Lights- identify approach ends of runways and taxiway centerlines.Red Lights- identify hold bars or areas that require tower clearance to cross.
8Lighting and Marking Systems Markings are commonly yellow and white,White- is used for runway identifier numbers/letters, landing zone bars, and centerlines.Yellow- Is used for hold bars and taxiways.
9Lighting and Marking Systems Hold bars are used like stop signs for vehicles and aircraft.One side is solid and the other is broken.When approaching from the solid side the vehicle is required to stop until cleared to cross by the tower.When approaching from the broken side the hold bar does not apply.
12Airport Ground Vehicle Control The tower controls ground vehicle traffic of the airfield.Instructions are issued via radio or visual contact using lights.Movement around the airfield should be done with the towers’ clearance even in emergencies.
14Airport Ground Vehicle Control Light signals are given using a light gun.ARFF driver should memorize these signals before allowed to operate on the active airfield.These signals are:
15Airport Ground Vehicle Control Flashing GREEN Light- Clear to proceed across or down the runway.Steady RED Light- STOP! Do not proceed.Flashing RED or Flashing Runway Lights- Clear active runway or landing area immediately!Flashing White Light- Return to fire sta. Or starting point.Alternating GREEN/RED Flashing Lights- General Warning Exercise Caution.
16Airport Ground Vehicle Control Airport ramps tend to be the most congested areas of the airfield.Pedestrian TrafficFueling OperationsService Vehicle MovementsHigh voltage electrical feeds to A\CA/C Maintenance operationsHazardous Materials being shipped or moved
17Grid MapsGrid maps are marked with either rectangular coordinates or azimuth bearings.Whichever is used, the grid map should cover an area from 5-15 mile radius from the Control Tower.Traffic patterns and zones should be included.Complete Up-to-Date copies should be furnished to tower personnel, Emergency response personnel and all others with legitimate interest.