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Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Airports And ATC Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Airports And ATC Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Airports And ATC Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

2 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! History of Airports Flying Circles Circular fields Allowed for takeoff and landings in any direction White gravel circle 50 to 100 ft in diameter marked middle of airfield Distinguished it from field used for livestock Airport names painted on the tops of buildings Flying Circles Circular fields Allowed for takeoff and landings in any direction White gravel circle 50 to 100 ft in diameter marked middle of airfield Distinguished it from field used for livestock Airport names painted on the tops of buildings

3 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!

4 Airport Lighting Runway Edge lights Single row of white lights on either side of runway edge If Instrument Runway Yellow for last 2,000 feet (or half, whichever is less) Three types: HIRLs MIRLs LIRLs Three ways to ID runway at night: Displaced threshold lighting – green lights on either side to indicate beginning of runway Row of green lights Row of red lights REILs Runway Edge lights Single row of white lights on either side of runway edge If Instrument Runway Yellow for last 2,000 feet (or half, whichever is less) Three types: HIRLs MIRLs LIRLs Three ways to ID runway at night: Displaced threshold lighting – green lights on either side to indicate beginning of runway Row of green lights Row of red lights REILs

5 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Airport Lighting In – Runway Lighting Centerline, touchdown zone, and taxiway turnoff lights Centerline Lights White until 3,000 ft 3,000 – 1,000 ft. alternating red and white Last 1,000 ft. RED Taxiway Lighting Blue lights that line both side of taxiway Omni directional Can be green In – Runway Lighting Centerline, touchdown zone, and taxiway turnoff lights Centerline Lights White until 3,000 ft 3,000 – 1,000 ft. alternating red and white Last 1,000 ft. RED Taxiway Lighting Blue lights that line both side of taxiway Omni directional Can be green

6 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Airport Lighting

7 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Lighting Continued…

8 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Pilot Controlled Lighting System by which pilot activates airport lighting from aircrafts PTT switch or mike. Used at non-controlled airports Keyed mike 7 times – high intensity 5 times - medium 3 times – low Can control VASI and PAPI systems along with the REILS and the Approach lighting system. System by which pilot activates airport lighting from aircrafts PTT switch or mike. Used at non-controlled airports Keyed mike 7 times – high intensity 5 times - medium 3 times – low Can control VASI and PAPI systems along with the REILS and the Approach lighting system.

9 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! VASI and PAPI Visual Approach Path Indicator (VASI) Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) 2 or 3 bar configurations and tri- color Safe obstruction clearance within 10° of runway centerline and 4 nm from threshold Visual Approach Path Indicator (VASI) Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) 2 or 3 bar configurations and tri- color Safe obstruction clearance within 10° of runway centerline and 4 nm from threshold

10 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Light Gun Signals Color and TypeAircraft on SurfaceAircraft in Flight Steady Green Cleared for takeoffCleared to Land Flashing Green Cleared to taxiReturn for Landing Steady Red Stop Give way to other aircraft and continue circling Flashing Red Taxi clear of runway Airport unsafe – do not land Flashing White Return to starting point on airport N/A Alternating Red/Green Exercise Extreme Caution

11 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Airport Beacons Four Types Civilian Water Military Airport Heliport Used to ID airports at night Daylight Operation <1,000 ft. and 3 miles visibility – which is what??? Four Types Civilian Water Military Airport Heliport Used to ID airports at night Daylight Operation <1,000 ft. and 3 miles visibility – which is what???

12 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Airport Traffic Pattern Established to ensure proper traffic flow in and out of the airport Standard Pattern 5 legs Always left hand traffic pattern – unless stated otherwise Established to ensure proper traffic flow in and out of the airport Standard Pattern 5 legs Always left hand traffic pattern – unless stated otherwise

13 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Traffic Pattern

14 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Wind Direction Indicators Calm Wind Runway Calm Wind Runway Preferred runway when wind less than 5 kts Preferred runway when wind less than 5 kts Wind Sock Wind Sock Most common wind indicator Most common wind indicator Wind intensity indicated by straightness of sock Wind intensity indicated by straightness of sock Wind Tee Wind Tee Sometimes locked in place to show active runway Sometimes locked in place to show active runway Unable to indicate wind intensity Unable to indicate wind intensity Tetrahedron Tetrahedron Sometimes locked in place to show active runway Sometimes locked in place to show active runway Unable to indicate wind intensity Unable to indicate wind intensity Calm Wind Runway Calm Wind Runway Preferred runway when wind less than 5 kts Preferred runway when wind less than 5 kts Wind Sock Wind Sock Most common wind indicator Most common wind indicator Wind intensity indicated by straightness of sock Wind intensity indicated by straightness of sock Wind Tee Wind Tee Sometimes locked in place to show active runway Sometimes locked in place to show active runway Unable to indicate wind intensity Unable to indicate wind intensity Tetrahedron Tetrahedron Sometimes locked in place to show active runway Sometimes locked in place to show active runway Unable to indicate wind intensity Unable to indicate wind intensity

15 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Wind Direction Indicators

16 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Segmented Circle Base Final Left Traffic for runway 23 Right Traffic for runway 5 Base Final 523 Elephant Path Airport, Perkasie, PA (PS03)

17 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Segmented Circle

18 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) Includes landings and holding short of intersecting runways, taxiways, or some other designated point on a runway. Controlled Airports Clearance given by ATC Can decline LAHSO clearance SAFETY FIRST Includes landings and holding short of intersecting runways, taxiways, or some other designated point on a runway. Controlled Airports Clearance given by ATC Can decline LAHSO clearance SAFETY FIRST

19 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! LAHSOLAHSO

20 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! LAHSOLAHSO

21 Wake Turbulence Wingtip vortices are created only when an airplane develops lift Greatest strength: heavy, clean & slow Wingtip vortices are created only when an airplane develops lift Greatest strength: heavy, clean & slow

22 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Wake Turbulence Tend to sink and drift with wind Fly above and upwind of flight path of large jet/aircraft Most dangerous is light, quartering tailwind Tend to sink and drift with wind Fly above and upwind of flight path of large jet/aircraft Most dangerous is light, quartering tailwind

23 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Wake Turbulence

24 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Taxiing in the Wind Proper use of aileron and elevators helps maintain control of airplane Taxiing in quarter headwind Aileron up on side from which wind is blowing, neutral elevator Taxiing in quartering tailwind Hold aileron down on the side from which the wind is blowing, and hold elevator down Most critical for tail wheel aircraft Proper use of aileron and elevators helps maintain control of airplane Taxiing in quarter headwind Aileron up on side from which wind is blowing, neutral elevator Taxiing in quartering tailwind Hold aileron down on the side from which the wind is blowing, and hold elevator down Most critical for tail wheel aircraft

25 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Taxing in the Wind

26 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Taxiing in Wind

27 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Collision Avoidance Risk of collision exists for all pilots – MUST TAKE PRECAUTIONS Most mid-air collisions take place when? 5NM airport on clear VFR days Scanning techniques Short 10° spaced sectored eye movements Clock positions Aircraft lighting (day/night) Aircraft blind spots High wing Low wing Risk of collision exists for all pilots – MUST TAKE PRECAUTIONS Most mid-air collisions take place when? 5NM airport on clear VFR days Scanning techniques Short 10° spaced sectored eye movements Clock positions Aircraft lighting (day/night) Aircraft blind spots High wing Low wing

28 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Aircraft Lighting Navigation Lights Red – Left Wing Green – Right Wing White – Tail Anti-Collision Lights Red rotating beacon - Fuselage White strobe lights – Wings Navigation Lights Red – Left Wing Green – Right Wing White – Tail Anti-Collision Lights Red rotating beacon - Fuselage White strobe lights – Wings

29 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Aircraft Lighting *Note: cannot see green/red nav lights from rear

30 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Airplane Blind Spots

31 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Other Blind Spots

32 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Collision Avoidance ATC Services Flight following Airport Operations Operation Lights On –FAA Landing lights on for DEP and ARR Operating within 10 nm day and night Clearing Turns ATC Services Flight following Airport Operations Operation Lights On –FAA Landing lights on for DEP and ARR Operating within 10 nm day and night Clearing Turns


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