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Meridians of Longitude and Parallels of Latitude semi great circles joining the true or geographic poles of the earth (true meridians) measured from.

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Presentation on theme: "Meridians of Longitude and Parallels of Latitude semi great circles joining the true or geographic poles of the earth (true meridians) measured from."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Meridians of Longitude and Parallels of Latitude semi great circles joining the true or geographic poles of the earth (true meridians) measured from 0° to 180° east and west of prime meridian 180th meridian is called the International Date Line measured in degrees (°), minutes (’) and seconds (”) circles on the earth’s surface whose planes lie parallel to the equator equator is a great circle on the surface of the earth lying equidistant from the poles measured from 0° to 90° north and south of equator measured in degrees (°), minutes (’) and seconds (”) Meridians of LongitudeParallels of Latitude Note: there are 60 minutes in a degree and 60 seconds in a minute

4 Determining Geographical Coordinates Intersection of the lines of latitude and longitude marking a position on a map used to locate a fixed object on the earth’s surface change of latitude and the change of longitude between two places relate one position on the surface with another

5 Time and Longitude Solar Day - interval between two successive transits of the sun. It is divided into 24 hours. The sun travels around the earth once every day. It travels 360 degrees of longitude in one day. Time can therefore be expressed in terms of longitude: –24 hours degrees longitude –1 hour - 15 degrees longitude –1 min - 15 minutes longitude –1 sec - 15 seconds longitude

6 Time and Longitude cont’d 360 degrees longitude - 24 hours 1 degree longitude - 4 min 1 minute longitude - 4 sec 1 second longitude - 1/15 sec

7 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Used so that a universal standard time exists for reference at any point on the earth (based upon measurements of time in a number of places on the earth. (It is also referred to as Z or zulu time. (UTC replaced Greenwich mean time (GMT), which was once the universally accepted standard. (UTC is the local mean time for the prime meridian. (Winter time is the same as Standard Time.

8 Confirmation Stage NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage

9 A B C D Meridians of longitude Parallels of latitude Meridians of latitude Parallels of longitude Let's try a few review questions on Navigation: Question #1 - Name a semi great circle joining the true poles of the earth. Navigation Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors

10 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

11 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

12 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

13 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

14 A B C D 24 hours 1 hour 1 minute 1 second Let's try a few review questions on Navigation: Question #2 - What is the length of 15° longitude? Navigation Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors

15 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

16 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

17 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

18 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

19 Magnetism (True North is the north pole of the earth. (Magnetic North is the direction the compass needle lies without considering deviation. (Magnetic north is not a fixed position. (The magnetic field of the earth changes as magnetic north moves about in a circle.

20 Magnetic Variation  Defined as the angle between the true meridian and magnetic meridian in which the compass needle lies.  It is also known as magnetic declination in other disciplines.

21 Converting between True and Magnetic Heading To convert from True to Magnetic Heading: –Add Westerly Variation –Subtract Easterly Variation 320° + 6° =326° Example:True Heading: 320° Variation: 6° West Find Magnetic Heading.

22 To convert from Magnetic to True Heading: –Add Easterly Variation –Subtract Westerly Variation 256° - 3° =253° Example:Magnetic Heading: 256° Variation: 3° West Find True Heading

23 Helpful Reminder East is Least West is Best

24 Compass Deviation JThe angle between the magnetic heading and the compass heading. JCompass heading is magnetic heading corrected for deviation.

25 Converting between Magnetic and Compass Heading To convert from Magnetic to Compass: –Add Westerly Deviation –Subtract Easterly Deviation 050° + 2° =052° Example:Magnetic Heading: 050° Deviation: 2° West Find Compass Heading.

26 To convert from Compass to Magnetic –Add Easterly Deviation –Subtract Westerly Deviation 201° - 1° =200° Example:Compass Heading: 201° Deviation: 1° West Find Magnetic Heading.

27 All variation and deviation can be remembered by: T - True Track V - Variation M - Magnetic Heading D - Deviation C - Compass Heading

28 Confirmation Stage NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage

29 A B C D Magnetic heading Compass heading Variation Deviation Let's try a few review questions on Navigation: Question #3 - What is the angle between the true meridian and the magnetic meridian? Navigation Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors

30 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

31 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

32 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

33 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

34 A B C D 220° 260° 240° 250° Let's try a few review questions on Navigation: Question #4 - If your aircraft has a true heading of 240° and there is a variation of 20° West, what is the magnetic heading? Navigation Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors

35 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

36 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

37 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

38 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

39 Compass Errors A compass has several errors which may lead it to not point directly to magnetic north. Knowledge of their presence will assist the pilot in correcting for them.

40 Magnetic Dip GThe earth’s lines of force are horizontal at the equator but become vertical towards the poles. GCauses the compass to tend to dip in higher latitudes.

41 Northerly Turning Error  The compass will misread when the aircraft is in a banked attitude and turning.  Error is most apparent on headings of north and south and is greatest over the poles.  Always make sure the wings are level while reading the compass on north or south headings.

42 On turns from the north, northerly turning error causes the compass to lag. On turns from the south, northerly turning error causes the compass to lead.

43 Acceleration Error ûOn east and west headings, acceleration causes a turning moment, tending to rotate the magnet system and so causing deflection of the compass card. ûWhen the airplane decelerates, a similar effect is seen but the deflection will be in the opposite direction. ûThe effect of acceleration and deceleration compass errors is nil on north and south headings. ûWhen reading the compass on east or west headings, always make sure that airspeed is constant.

44 While flying an east/west heading, acceleration causes the compass to register a turn to the north. While flying an east/west heading, deceleration causes the compass to register a turn to the south.

45 NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage

46 A B C D Magnetic dip Acceleration and deceleration error Northerly turning error Easterly and westerly error Let's try a few review questions on Navigation: Question #5 - The error on turns from north where the compass lags is known as. Navigation Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors

47 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

48 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

49 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

50 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

51 Let's try a few review questions on Navigation: Question #6 - The compass needle dips toward the surface of the earth at the poles. What is this error called? Navigation Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors A B C D Magnetic dip Acceleration and deceleration error Northerly turning error Easterly and westerly error

52 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

53 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

54 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

55 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

56 Congratulations!! Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors You have now completed the Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors lesson of the Navigation Module. Of course, this lesson is always available to you for future reference if required. You are now ready to move along to the next Navigation lesson you have not completed or to any other module you wish. You can advance to the Self Test Module if you feel ready to challenge the final exam. Good Luck! Navigation Latitude, Longitude, Earth’s Magnetism, and Compass Errors


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