2 SCOPE What is night? The JAR Night Qualification Night Vision Aircraft and Aerodrome LightingNight FlyingNight Navigation
3 MORE INFORMATIONTrevor ThomAir Pilots Manual Volume 5
4 WHAT IS NIGHT? 30 minutes after sunset to 30 minutes before sunrise Times in AIP Gen 2.7 on and Flight Guides
5 JAR NIGHT QUALIFICATION Entitles PPL holder to act as PIC at NightPassengers can be carried if during previous 90 days at least one take-off and landing has been completed at night (assuming the 3 t/o and ldg in 90 days for passenger carrying normally is current!)Unless you hold a valid IR (not IMC!)No retest or renewal criteria
6 JAR NIGHT QUALIFICATION 5 hours overall night training to include:3 hour dual night trainingIncluding 1 hour dual night navigation5 take off and full stop landings at night as PIC of aeroplanesNO TEST!!!
7 Eye requires about 30 minutes to adapt to dark. The eye contains visual receptor cells called cones (daytime) and rods (nighttime).Eye requires about 30 minutes to adapt to dark.Depth perception, sharpness, and color is lost at night.The rods work best when you look off center at night.The retina contains two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. The rods are more numerous, some 120 million, and are more sensitive than the cones. However, they are not sensitive to color. The 6 to 7 million cones provide the eye's color sensitivity and they are much more concentrated in the central yellow spot known as the macula. In the center of that region is the " fovea centralis ", a 0.3 mm diameter rod-free area with very thin, densely packed cones.
9 Red light improves adaptation but interferes with chart reading and focusing on outside objects. Use minimal white light as needed.Bright lights ruin dark adaptation (close one eye when a light is used).High altitudes (above 5,000 ft), smoking, carbon monoxide, and vitamin A deficiency impair dark adaptation.
10 AIRCRAFT LIGHTING Left wing RED Right wing Green Tail white Anti-collisionLanding light
11 Air Navigation Order Equipment requirements – External LightsDevices for signalling if non-radioInterior LightingElectric torch for each crew memberLanding Light
12 .TAXIWAY LIGHTINGTaxiway edge lights = blue and are used to outline the edges of the taxiways at night or in reduced visibility conditions.Centreline = greenTaxiway turn off lights are steady green and define the curved path from the centerline to the taxiway.
13 Runway guard lights (wag lights) are steady yellow lights used to make the holding position more visible.
14 Note the Hold position is marked by double lights on one side of the taxiway.
15 Clearance bar lights are steady yellow in-pavement lights used to mark the holding position.
16 RUNWAY LIGHTING Threshold lights are green. Runway edge lights are white.Last 2,000 feet are yellow.Runway end lights are RED!!!!
17 Lead in lights do not mark usable landing area – often outside airfield boundary
18 PAPIsPAPI lights are typically visible 5 miles from the airport during the day and 20 miles at night.
19 VASIsWhen using a 3-bar VASI and you see 2 red bars above 1 white bar. You are on the lower glide path.The VASI assures clearance within 10 degrees of the extended runway centerline and out to 4 nautical miles from the threshold.
29 NIGHT FLYING Take Off The aircraft flys the same! Check on centre line Use runway edge lights to keep straightOn rotation transfer to instrumentsWhen regain visual references transfer back (usually 3-400ft)
33 NIGHT FLYING Night Approach and Landing Use approach aids (PAPIs at Lyneham)Use runway lights to judge round-outDO NOT STARE AT LANDING LIGHT!Progressive round-out and power reduction
34 NIGHT FLYINGEmergenciesEFATOElectrical FailureRadio Failure
35 NIGHT FLYING Night Approach and Landing Use approach aids (PAPIs at Lyneham)Use runway lights to judge round-outDO NOT STARE AT LANDING LIGHT!Progressive round-out and power reduction
36 NIGHT NAVIGATION Ground Features- light patterns of towns Distance deceptiveRadio Nav importantForced landing?No Night VFR – must fly IFRQuadrantal Cruising Level above 3000’ AMSLSafety Alt (1000’ above nearest obstacle within 5nm of track)