Presentation on theme: "Airport Familiarization Types of Airports Basically there are two types of airports: Controlled-with control towers and traffic control personnel Uncontrolled-"— Presentation transcript:
Types of Airports Basically there are two types of airports: Controlled-with control towers and traffic control personnel Uncontrolled- either staffed partially during the day or totally uncontrolled.
Types of Airports The Federal Aviation Authority, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the NFPA determine the level of fire protection required at the airport. The FAA and ICAO base the airport type on the length of the aircraft, number of passengers and average number of flights. The AHJ will determine the type of ARFF required.
Airport Traffic Patterns ARFF personnel must understand traffic patterns used at airports. This will assist the firefighter in determining the approach of an emergency aircraft. Aircraft take-off and land into the wind. The components of a typical traffic pattern are:
Crosswind leg- Perpendicular to the runway on the departure end Downwind leg- Parallel to the runway heading to the approach end Base leg- Last leg, perpendicular to the runway at the approach end. Final Approach- Straight into the runway into the wind Airport Traffic Patterns
Runway and Taxiway Designation Systems Runway numbers are taken from the compass bearing of approaching A/C rounded to the nearest 10º. There will always be a difference of 180º between opposite ends of a runway. Example: Runway 23 verses Runway 05 –23 is compass heading 230º and 05 is compass heading 050º.
Runway and Taxiway Designation Systems Parallel runways are designated with L for left, R for right, and C for center. Taxiways are usually designated by letters, numbers or a combination. They are not standardized but are determined locally. Taxiways are the roadways for aircraft movement on the ground
Aircraft Landing View
Aircraft Radar View
Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems Blue Lights- outline taxiways and are located off the edge 100 apart. White Lights- Outline runways and are 200 apart. Green Lights- identify approach ends of runways and taxiway centerlines. Red Lights- identify hold bars or areas that require tower clearance to cross.
Yellow (Amber) Lights- are for the location of hold bars Markings are commonly Yellow and White and Red White- is used for runway identifier numbers/letters, landing zone bars, and centerlines. Red is for restricted areas such as fire lanes or no-entry areas Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems
Yellow- Is used for hold bars and taxiways. Hold bars are used like stop signs for vehicles and aircraft. One side is solid and the other is broken. –When approaching from the solid side the vehicle is required to stop until cleared to cross by the tower. –When approaching from the broken side the hold bar does not apply. Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems
Signs come in six different types: Mandatory Instruction Signs- information that you must adhere to Runway Hold Position Signs- Tells you where to hold short of Location Signs- Tells you where you are Direction Signs- Tells you where you are going Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems
Destination signs- The destination of the route you are on Information Signs - Give pilots information such as radio frequencies or procedures Runway Distance Remaining Signs- just as it reads. In thousands of feet. A 4 would mean 4000 ft remaining ( this is the most important sign to a pilot) Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems
Airport Design Knowing the airport layout is essential to the ARFF firefighter. The Firefighter should also know the structures and topography of the airport By knowing this and using Grid Maps the ARFF personnel will be able to select the fastest, most appropriate route to an emergency.
Grid Maps Grid maps are marked with either rectangular coordinates or azimuth bearings. Whichever is used, the grid map should cover an area from 5-15 mile radius from the Control Tower. Traffic patterns and zones should be included. Complete Up-to-Date copies should be furnished to tower personnel, Emergency response personnel and all others with legitimate interest.
Features such as streams and bridges should be on the map Landmarks, roads and drainage systems should be on the map Other maps such as utility and fuel spill indicator maps should also be used. Grid Maps
Airport Topography Topography means features both natural and constructed Knowing topography assist the firefighter in selecting routes to the scene of an emergency. It assist is predicting fire spread at crashes
Airport Structures As with any firefighter, the ARFF firefighter needs to be familiar with the structures on the airfield Normally these structures are Terminals- occupant unfamiliar with the building, limited egress points sometimes to aircraft operational areas Jetways that connect the terminal to the aircraft and possible flame spread
Baggage handling and storage areas are typically loaded with baggage and a maze for handlines Aircraft Maintenance Facilities have various hazards such as flammable fuels, welding, electrical, radar systems repair, and other hazardous materials and procedures going on. Airport Structures
Other facilities and activities are: Utilities- confined spaces, electrical and high voltage hazards Air-Freight- stored Haz-Mat Control Tower- Electrical, security, limited access and egress Passenger transportation- subways, monorails elevators Airport Structures
Multilevel parking structures- moving vehicles and fuel limited water supply and limited access to fire vehicles Hotels, Motels, Restaurants- may be inside, attached to the terminal or located on the airport. Airport Structures
On Airport Navigation Aids NAVAIDS are instruments used to provide point-to-point information to aircraft ARFF vehicles parked in the area of the aids may interfere with the operation of the device
Roads and Bridges ARFF personnel need to know the roads and other access features of the airport What are their limitations What are the capabilities Will they support ARFF equipment
Airport Ramps Airport ramps tend to be the most congested areas of the airfield. Mainly due to Pedestrian Traffic Fueling Operations Service Vehicle Movements High voltage electrical feeds to A\C A/C Maintenance operations Hazardous Materials being shipped or moved
Be observant on the ramp apron area Do not park behind aircraft Observe low vehicles such as tow vehicles and tugs, baggage loaders, etc. Watch for fueling vehicles Watch out for FOD. FOD will quickly turn a multimillion dollar aircraft into a multimillion dollar prop. Airport Ramps
Be careful when driving from off-pavement to the paved areas of the airport, vehicle wheels carry FOD onto the ramp area. Observe the Airport Areas. By observing these areas the Firefighter will gain an awareness of the happenings of the airport. Airport Ramps
Controlled Access Points These areas are designated with solid red lines or broken red/white lines They help eliminate unnecessary traffic from certain areas. Usually, there will be security control of these areas
Fences and Gates Airports require fences to protect the aircraft and people who fly in them These fences also hamper ARFF response to certain areas on or off the airport
Because of this, firefighters need to know how to exit the fence-line. To exit the fence, use frangible gates These gates will breakaway easily when struck by the ARFF vehicle Fences and Gates
Designated Isolation Areas This is an area where aircraft having problems and carrying hazardous cargo such as Haz-Mat or weapons can be isolated from the rest of the airport
Water Supply Water supply comes fixed systems and static supply (lakes, streams, pools) Due to the size of some airports and the limits of the water supply the firefighter may have to bring his own in tenders and tankers
Fuel Storage and Distribution Large amounts of fuel are used daily at airports The ARFF firefighter needs to know about the fuel storage on the airport and how it is distributed
Fuel is brought to the airport in trucks, railcar or pipeline Fuel is stored in tanks either above or below ground. It may be piped directly to the aircraft or delivered in fueling vehicles However it gets to the aircraft, the firefighter needs to understand the safety surrounding fueling operations Fueling Operations
Fuel operations are the number one fire prevention concern on airports Fuel comes either by underground piping to a fuel hydrant at each gate, there a fuel truck connects to the hydrant to pump the fuel. The aircraft may be fueled at a fueling Island, much like a car at a gas station Fueling Operations
The most common method of fuel is by tanker truck These trucks have capacities ranging from 500 – 10,000 gal. of fuel Personnel fueling the aircraft must use a Dead man switch This shuts down the operation during an emergency or if the fueler is incapacitated
Due to static charge buildup during fueling operations the operation should be grounded. The NFPA does not require the grounding to a static ground node, but may request it of the carrier For safety reasons must carriers do this Fueling Operations
The fuel is loaded to the aircraft in one of two ways Using a single point that allows fueling of all onboard fuel tanks,such as in larger aircraft. Or, Over the wing, filling each tank separately as in smaller aircraft Fueling Operations
Airlines require that aircraft be readied quickly, this may cause corner cutting in safety Circumventing fuel shut-off devices, poorly maintained equipment and over filling are some of the hazards ARFF firefighters may encounter Fueling Operations Hazards
Fuel vapors are another hazard As an aircraft is fueled vapors are forced out vent tanks Therefore, explosive vapor-air mixtures can form around the aircraft and fuel truck/operation The ARFF Firefighter must remove any Ignition Sources
Due to the hazardous environment around an aircraft, possible ignition sources must be eliminated These sources are static and electromagnetic Static charges build up on surfaces during fueling operations The aircraft should be bonded with the fueling truck to equalized the static charge Fueling Operations Ignition Sources
Electro-magnetic electricity comes from radar, radio, and telephone sources These devices should not be used during fueling operations Open flames should also not be permitted within 50 of an aircraft This means smoking as well Fueling Operations Ignition Sources
Fire extinguishers of the proper size and type should be used around aircraft The distance between extinguishers should be no more than 100 apart or 100 from the aircraft being serviced Fueling Operations Extinguishers
In most airports drainage is designed to handle spilled fuel But fuel should not be allowed to flow directly into sewer systems The ARFF firefighter should know the drainage at the airport Fueling Operations Drainage Systems