2Types of Airports Basically there are two types of airports: Controlled-with control towers and traffic control personnelUncontrolled- either staffed partially during the day or totally uncontrolled.
3Types of AirportsThe Federal Aviation Authority, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the NFPA determine the level of fire protection required at the airport.The FAA and ICAO base the airport type on the length of the aircraft, number of passengers and average number of flights.The AHJ will determine the type of ARFF required.
4Airport Traffic Patterns ARFF personnel must understand traffic patterns used at airports.This will assist the firefighter in determining the approach of an emergency aircraft.Aircraft take-off and land into the wind.The components of a typical traffic pattern are:
5Airport Traffic Patterns Crosswind leg- Perpendicular to the runway on the departure endDownwind leg- Parallel to the runway heading to the approach endBase leg- Last leg, perpendicular to the runway at the approach end.Final Approach- Straight into the runway into the wind
6Runway and Taxiway Designation Systems Runway numbers are taken from the compass bearing of approaching A/C rounded to the nearest 10º.There will always be a difference of 180º between opposite ends of a runway.Example: Runway 23 verses Runway 0523 is compass heading 230º and 05 is compass heading 050º.
7Runway and Taxiway Designation Systems Parallel runways are designated with L for left, R for right, and C for center.Taxiways are usually designated by letters, numbers or a combination.They are not standardized but are determined locally.Taxiways are the roadways for aircraft movement on the ground
10Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems Blue Lights- outline taxiways and are located off the edge 100’ apart.White Lights- Outline runways and are 200’ apart.Green Lights- identify approach ends of runways and taxiway centerlines.Red Lights- identify hold bars or areas that require tower clearance to cross.
11Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems Yellow (Amber) Lights- are for the location of hold barsMarkings are commonly Yellow and White and RedWhite- is used for runway identifier numbers/letters, landing zone bars, and centerlines.Red is for restricted areas such as fire lanes or no-entry areas
12Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems Yellow- Is used for hold bars and taxiways. Hold bars are used like stop signs for vehicles and aircraft.One side is solid and the other is broken.When approaching from the solid side the vehicle is required to stop until cleared to cross by the tower.When approaching from the broken side the hold bar does not apply.
13Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems Signs come in six different types:Mandatory Instruction Signs- information that you must adhere toRunway Hold Position Signs- Tells you where to hold short ofLocation Signs- Tells you where you areDirection Signs- Tells you where you are going
14Airport Lighting, Marking and Signage Systems Destination signs- The destination of the route you are onInformation Signs - Give pilots information such as radio frequencies or proceduresRunway Distance Remaining Signs- just as it reads. In thousands of feet. A 4 would mean 4000 ft remaining ( this is the most important sign to a pilot)
16Airport DesignKnowing the airport layout is essential to the ARFF firefighter.The Firefighter should also know the structures and topography of the airportBy knowing this and using Grid Maps the ARFF personnel will be able to select the fastest, most appropriate route to an emergency.
17Grid MapsGrid maps are marked with either rectangular coordinates or azimuth bearings.Whichever is used, the grid map should cover an area from 5-15 mile radius from the Control Tower.Traffic patterns and zones should be included.Complete Up-to-Date copies should be furnished to tower personnel, Emergency response personnel and all others with legitimate interest.
18Grid Maps Features such as streams and bridges should be on the map Landmarks, roads and drainage systems should be on the mapOther maps such as utility and fuel spill indicator maps should also be used.
19Airport TopographyTopography means features both natural and constructedKnowing topography assist the firefighter in selecting routes to the scene of an emergency.It assist is predicting fire spread at crashes
20Airport StructuresAs with any firefighter , the ARFF firefighter needs to be familiar with the structures on the airfieldNormally these structures areTerminals- occupant unfamiliar with the building, limited egress points sometimes to aircraft operational areasJetways that connect the terminal to the aircraft and possible flame spread
21Airport StructuresBaggage handling and storage areas are typically loaded with baggage and a maze for handlinesAircraft Maintenance Facilities have various hazards such as flammable fuels, welding, electrical, radar systems repair, and other hazardous materials and procedures going on.
22Airport Structures Other facilities and activities are: Utilities- confined spaces, electrical and high voltage hazardsAir-Freight- stored Haz-MatControl Tower- Electrical, security, limited access and egressPassenger transportation- subways, monorails elevators
23Airport StructuresMultilevel parking structures- moving vehicles and fuel limited water supply and limited access to fire vehiclesHotels, Motels, Restaurants- may be inside, attached to the terminal or located on the airport.
24On Airport Navigation Aids NAVAIDS are instruments used to provide point-to-point information to aircraftARFF vehicles parked in the area of the aids may interfere with the operation of the device
25Roads and BridgesARFF personnel need to know the roads and other access features of the airportWhat are their limitationsWhat are the capabilitiesWill they support ARFF equipment
26Airport RampsAirport ramps tend to be the most congested areas of the airfield. Mainly due toPedestrian TrafficFueling OperationsService Vehicle MovementsHigh voltage electrical feeds to A\CA/C Maintenance operationsHazardous Materials being shipped or moved
27Airport Ramps Be observant on the ramp apron area Do not park behind aircraftObserve low vehicles such as tow vehicles and tugs, baggage loaders, etc.Watch for fueling vehiclesWatch out for FOD.FOD will quickly turn a multimillion dollar aircraft into a multimillion dollar prop.
28Airport RampsBe careful when driving from off-pavement to the paved areas of the airport, vehicle wheels carry FOD onto the ramp area.Observe the Airport Areas. By observing these areas the Firefighter will gain an awareness of the happenings of the airport.
29Controlled Access Points These areas are designated with solid red lines or broken red/white linesThey help eliminate unnecessary traffic from certain areas.Usually, there will be security control of these areas
30Fences and GatesAirports require fences to protect the aircraft and people who fly in themThese fences also hamper ARFF response to certain areas on or off the airport
31Fences and GatesBecause of this, firefighters need to know how to exit the fence-line.To exit the fence, use frangible gatesThese gates will breakaway easily when struck by the ARFF vehicle
32Designated Isolation Areas This is an area where aircraft having problems and carrying hazardous cargo such as Haz-Mat or weapons can be isolated from the rest of the airport
33Water SupplyWater supply comes fixed systems and static supply (lakes, streams, pools) Due to the size of some airports and the limits of the water supply the firefighter may have to bring his own in tenders and tankers
34Fuel Storage and Distribution Large amounts of fuel are used daily at airportsThe ARFF firefighter needs to know about the fuel storage on the airport and how it is distributed
35Fueling OperationsFuel is brought to the airport in trucks, railcar or pipelineFuel is stored in tanks either above or below ground.It may be piped directly to the aircraft or delivered in fueling vehiclesHowever it gets to the aircraft, the firefighter needs to understand the safety surrounding fueling operations
36Fueling OperationsFuel operations are the number one fire prevention concern on airportsFuel comes either by underground piping to a fuel hydrant at each gate, there a fuel truck connects to the hydrant to pump the fuel.The aircraft may be fueled at a fueling Island, much like a car at a gas station
37Fueling Operations The most common method of fuel is by tanker truck These trucks have capacities ranging from 500 – 10,000 gal. of fuelPersonnel fueling the aircraft must use a “Dead man switch”This shuts down the operation during an emergency or if the fueler is incapacitated
38Fueling OperationsDue to static charge buildup during fueling operations the operation should be grounded.The NFPA does not require the grounding to a static ground node, but may request it of the carrierFor safety reasons must carriers do this
39Fueling OperationsThe fuel is loaded to the aircraft in one of two waysUsing a single point that allows fueling of all onboard fuel tanks,such as in larger aircraft. Or,Over the wing, filling each tank separately as in smaller aircraft
40Fueling Operations Hazards Airlines require that aircraft be readied quickly, this may cause corner cutting in safetyCircumventing fuel shut-off devices, poorly maintained equipment and over filling are some of the hazards ARFF firefighters may encounter
41Fueling Operations Hazards Fuel vapors are another hazardAs an aircraft is fueled vapors are forced out vent tanksTherefore, explosive vapor-air mixtures can form around the aircraft and fuel truck/operationThe ARFF Firefighter must remove any Ignition Sources
42Fueling Operations Ignition Sources Due to the hazardous environment around an aircraft, possible ignition sources must be eliminatedThese sources are static and electromagneticStatic charges build up on surfaces during fueling operationsThe aircraft should be bonded with the fueling truck to equalized the static charge
43Fueling Operations Ignition Sources Electro-magnetic electricity comes from radar, radio, and telephone sourcesThese devices should not be used during fueling operationsOpen flames should also not be permitted within 50’ of an aircraftThis means smoking as well
44Fueling Operations Extinguishers Fire extinguishers of the proper size and type should be used around aircraftThe distance between extinguishers should be no more than 100’ apart or 100’ from the aircraft being serviced
45Fueling Operations Drainage Systems In most airports drainage is designed to handle spilled fuelBut fuel should not be allowed to flow directly into sewer systemsThe ARFF firefighter should know the drainage at the airport