2Ground Handling Handling Team What is FOD? Aircraft arrivals and departuresare usually attended by two tradesmen,known as theHandling TeamThe handling team will marshalan arriving aircraft into a parking areawhich has been cleared of FODWhat is FOD?
3Ground Handling FOD is Foreign Object Damage objects which have the potentialto damage aircraft either bybeing sucked into an engine,blown by jet efflux into another aircraft,or damaging aircraft tyres.
4Ground Handling The Handling Team will insert chocks and connect necessarypower and ground servicing equipment.Position fire extinguishersduring engine shut-downs.Position aircraft steps and assistthe aircrew with unstrapping.Finally the handling team fit safety devices(safety pins, covers, blanks and plugsthat may be needed).
5Marshalling The aim of the marshaller is to assist the pilot in the safe manoeuvringof the aircraft on the ground.The marshaller communicates with the pilotby making visual signalswith his arms and hands,but the pilot is not required to complywith marshalling instructionshe considers to be unsafe.
6Marshalling The extent of the marshalling assistance will depend upon: The pilot’s familiarity with the airfield,the number of obstructions,the size of the aircraft,the field of view from the cockpit.
7Marshalling At an unfamiliar airfield taxiing instruction can be passedto the pilot by radio;For a long taxi route,marshallers may be stationedalong the route at intervals,or “follow me” vehiclesmay be used.
8Marshalling Night Marshalling Taxiing at night requires more detailed marshalling directions.Navigation lights must always be on,and taxi lights used.Care should be taken not todazzle the marshaller.Nav LightsTaxi Lights
9Marshalling Night Marshalling Marshallers carry wands or torches for identification and must be visibleat all times by the pilot.If the pilot looses sight of the marshallerthey must stop and wait for them to catch up.
10Towing and Parking Aircraft are never taxied in to or out of hangers – they are towed or manhandled instead.Handling parties must be qualifiedand consist of:An experienced supervisor.One person in the cockpitto operate the brakes.One at each wing tipto ensure obstacle clearance.Either a driver for the towing vehicle,or sufficient peopleto manhandle the aircraft.
11Towing and Parking When parking an aircraft the handling party act in accordance with orders for that aircraft:Park the aircraft facing into wind so that no partof one aircraft overlaps any part of another.b. Double chock the wheels - fore and aft.c. Release the brakes.Check the electrical services, ignition switchesand fuel cocks are turned off.e. Apply control locks.f. Fit pitot and static vents covers.Lock canopies and doors, fit canopy, wheel andengine covers and set drip trays.
12Danger Zones Danger zones are those areas in which there is a high risk of injury to personnelwhen aircraft components or systemsare operated on the ground.Danger zones include:Engine intakes - suckingEngine exhausts – blowing & hotPropellers – always considered as “live”Helicopter rotors – prone to “blade sail”where they rotate and bring the bladescloser to ground height.
13Danger Zones Wheel and Brake Fires Aircraft wheel brakes are made of two components:a pad of heat-resistant, hard-wearing fibreand a disc attached to the wheel.Friction between pad and disc slows the aircraft,it also heats up the disc –which can, in prolonged taxiing,abnormal loading or heavy landing,cause a fire.The Marshalling team are in charge of thisuntil the Fire Service arrives.
14Danger Zones Wheel and Brake Fires The safest course of first aid actionagainst an aircraft wheel or brake fire is:To stand forward or rearward of the wheels,depending on the prevailing wind,but never in line with the axle.To operate the fire extinguisherat the limit of its range,and to spray the extinguishant downwards,0.3m away from the wheels
15Check Understanding The Marshalling Team The FOD Team What are the tradesmen who attendaircraft arrivals and departures known as?The Marshalling TeamThe FOD TeamThe Handling TeamThe Safety Team
16Check Understanding The Handler The Marshaller The Director What is the person who assists the pilotin the safe manoeuvring of the aircraft called?The HandlerThe MarshallerThe DirectorThe Supervisor
17Check Understanding By Radio By Semaphore By Hand and Arm signals How does the marshallercommunicates with the pilot?By RadioBy SemaphoreBy Hand and Arm signalsThrough Air Traffic Control
18Check Understanding That the taxi-light bulbs are not burned out. What precautions should be takenwhen using taxi-lights?That the taxi-light bulbsare not burned out.That the marshallershould not be dazzled.That the aircraft batteriesare not overloaded.That people in adjacent buildingsare not dazzled.
19Areas around propellers, engine intakes, Check UnderstandingAreas around propellers, engine intakes,exhausts, rotors etc.are considered as what?Activation AreasBlade ZonesRotation AreasDanger Zones
20Check Understanding Blade dropping Blade falling Blade sailing What is the effect called whena helicopter on the ground,has its engine running,and a gust of wind causes its bladesto be closer to the ground than normal?Blade droppingBlade fallingBlade sailingBlade slipping
21Check Understanding 0.3 m away from the wheels 0.3 m above the wheels When fighting an aircraft wheel fire,where should you aim the extinguisher jet?0.3 m away from the wheels0.3 m above the wheelsDirectly onto the wheels0.3 m behind the wheels
22Check Understanding At an unfamiliar airfield how can taxiing instructionbe passed to the pilot?Via a TV link-upBy ‘follow me’ vehiclesVia SemaphoreBy Radio