4By the end of this section, student will be able to: Learning OutcomeBy the end of this section, student will be able to:Describe about airportsExplain several different types of airportsDescribe the function of Airports
5What means by AIRPPORTAn airport is a facility where passengers connect from ground transportation to air transportation.
6What means by AIRPPORTAn airport is a location where aircraft such as airplanes, helicopters take off and land.Aircraft may also be stored or maintained at an airport.An airport should have runway for takeoffs and landings, buildings such as hangars and terminal buildings.A military airport is known as an airbase or air station.
7DefinitionAIRFIELD is an area where an aircraft can land and take off, which may or may not be equipped with any navigational aids or markings. Many grass strips are also designated as airfields.
8What is Aerodromes? AERODROMES Chapter 2What is Aerodromes?AERODROMESA defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.
10Airport HistoryThe world's first airport was built in 1928 at Croydon near London (England). It was the main airport for London till it was closed down in 1959, after the World War II. It is now open as a visitor centre for aviation.
11Major Groups of Activities in AVIATION AIRPORTAirlinesRegulationAir Traffic Services
12AirlinesAn organization that provides scheduled flights for passengers or cargo.AIRLINES INCLUDE SCHEDULED AIRLINES AND NON-SCHEDULED AIRLINESAIRLINES CAN BE DOMESTIC, INTERNATIONAL OR FOREIGNAIRLINES CAN BE PASSENGER CARRIERS, FREIGHT CARRIERS OR BOTH PASSENGER AND FRIGHT CARRIERSMOST AIRLINES CARRY BOTH PASSENGERS AND FREIGHTAIRLINES CAN BE OWNED BY GOVERNMENT, GOVERNMENT OWNED COMPANIES, PRIVATE COMPANIES OR COMPANIES JOINTLY OWNED BY GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE ENTITIESAIRLINES CAN BE OWNED BY ONE AGENCY BUT CAN BE MANAGED BY ANOTHER ENTITY
13AIR TRAFFIC SERVICESAir traffic services help in navigating aircraft while landing, taking off, flying in the air, over-flying any country, taxing on the ground and parkingThey provide a discipline in the air and also on the ground and maintain safetyThe services are provided by using modern equipment including radars
14REGULATION AND POLICIES The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).Policy issues - ministry of civil aviation, planning commissionSafety – main responsibility is with dgcaSecurity- main responsibility is with the bureau of civil aviation securityEconomic – main responsibility is with moca and proposed airports economic regulatory authority
15The International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.The constitution of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up by a conference in Chicago in November and December 1944, and to which each ICAO Contracting State is a party. According to the terms of the Convention, the Organization is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with various subordinate bodies and a Secretariat. The chief officers are the President of the Council and the Secretary General.
16REGULATION AND POLICIES IN MALAYSIA:Department of Civil Aviation (DCA)
18International Airports Types of AirportsInternational AirportsRegionalAirportsDomestic
19International Airports An international airport has direct service to many other airports.Handle scheduled commercial airlines both for passengers and cargo.Many international airports also serve as "HUBS", or places where non-direct flights may land and passengers switch planes.Typically equipped with customs and immigration facilities to handle international flights to and from other countries.Such airports are usually larger, and often feature longer runways and facilities to accommodate the large aircraft. (FBO, MRO etc..)Larger airports may have Fixed Base Operator (FBO) services, seaplane docks and ramps, air traffic control, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, and emergency services.In some jurisdictions, the term airport is used where the facility is licensed as such by the relevant government organization (e.g. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Transport Canada). Elsewhere the distinction is merely one of general appearance. Yet other areas define an airport by its having the necessary customs offices etc expected of a port, though the more general term is airport of entry.Larger airports for airline flights generally have paved runways 2,000 m (6,600 ft) or longer.In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths.These include considerations for safety margins during landing and takeoff.Heavier aircraft require longer runways.The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bangda Airport in China. It has a length of 5,500 m (18,045 ft). The world’s widest paved runway is at Ulyanovsk Vostochny Airport in Russia and is 105 m (344 ft) wide.
20O’Hare International Airport – Chicago, Illinois, United States
27Domestic AirportsA domestic airport is an airport which handles only domestic flights or flights within the same country.Domestic airports don't have customs and immigration facilities and are therefore incapable of handling flights to or from a foreign airport.These airports normally have short runways which are sufficient to handle short/medium haul aircraft.
28Regional AirportsA regional airport is an airport serving traffic within a relatively small or lightly populated geographical area.A regional airport usually does not have customs and immigration facilities to process traffic between countries.Aircraft using these airports tend to be smaller business jets or private aircraft (general aviation).
29Regional Airports Louisiana Regional Airport, US Smaller or less-developed airports — which represent the vast majority — often have a single runway shorter than 1,000 m (3,300 ft). Many small airports have dirt, grass, or gravel runways, rather than asphalt or concrete.As of 2006, there were approximately 49,000 airports around the world, including 14,858 in the US., the U.S. having the most in the world
30Airport OwnershipsMost of the world’s airports are owned by government bodies who then lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport’s operation.For example, In Malaysia, airport are authorized by Malaysia Airport Holding Berhad (MAHB).MAHB responsible is to focus on the operations, management and maintenance of Malaysia airports.Most of the world’s airports are owned by local, regional,or national government bodies who then lease theairport to private corporations who oversee the airport’soperation.For example, BAA Limited (BAA) operatesseven of the commercial airports in the United Kingdom,as well as several other airports outside of the UK. Germany’sFrankfurt Airport is managed by the quasiprivatefirm Fraport.In the US and Canada, commercial airports are generallyoperated directly by government entities orgovernment-created airport authorities (also known asport authorities).MAHB is the operator and manager of Malaysia's 39 airports which comprise international (5), domestic (15) and Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL)-(19) ports.The core activities include the management, operation and maintenance as well as development of airports, with primary importance being placed on the operational efficiency, safety and security of passengers, cargo and aircraft operations.Besides its core business activities, MAHB has in its corporate structure, a few subsidiary companies to offer a range of aviation and non-aviation related products and services.
31How are airports managed? There are several divisions to manage each sub organizations at an airport.These divisions includingAirport operation services (security, fire & rescue & maintenance)Airport planning and development (engineering)Airport financial (revenues, business)The primary objective of each division is to ensure the operational efficiency, safety and security of passengers, cargo and aircraft operations.
32Airport StructureLandsideAirsideAirports are divided into landside and airside areas. Landsideareas include parking lots, public transportationtrain stations, tank farms and access roads. Airside areasinclude all areas accessible to aircraft, including runways,taxiways, ramps and tank farms. Access from landsideareas to airside areas is tightly controlled at most airports. Passengers on commercial flights access airsideareas through terminals, where they can purchase tickets,clear security, check or claim luggage and board aircraftthrough gates. The waiting areas which providepassenger access to aircraft are typically called concourses,although this term is often used interchangeablywith terminal.The area where aircraft park next to a terminal toload passengers and baggage is known as a ramp (or "thetarmac"). Parking areas for aircraft away from terminalsare called aprons.Airports can be towered or non-towered, dependingon air traffic density and available funds. Due to theirhigh capacity and busy airspace, many international airportshave air traffic control located on site.Airports with international flights have customs andimmigration facilities. However, as some countries haveagreements that allow travel between them without customsand immigrations, such facilities are not a definitiveneed for an international airport. Internationalflights often require a higher level of physical security,although in recent years, many countries have adoptedthe same level of security for international and domestictravel.Modern engineers and architects are developing"floating airports" which could be located several milesat sea and which would use designs such as pneumaticstabilized platform technology.