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Air Traffic Management

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Presentation on theme: "Air Traffic Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Traffic Management
Calie Giangi

2 Agenda Introduction to ATC Generic Elements Airspace ATC Structure
Purpose Basic Services Generic Elements Airspace ATC Structure ATC Operations Future of ATC

3 Air Traffic Control (ATC)
Also known as air traffic management (ATM) The purpose of ATC is to ensure the safe and efficient flow of air traffic

4 Four Basic Services Separation assurance – ATC controllers are responsible for keeping aircrafts separated from each other, as well as from other hazards such as terrain or wake vortices Flight information – provide weather and airport condition updates Search and rescue – notifying and alerting proper agencies about an aircraft in need Congestion management – organizing traffic flows into congested airports and airspace

5 Generic Elements of ATC System

6 Generic Elements of ATC System
Communications System Commands/clearances are issued to aircrafts Voice radio channels Network of ground stations Range is limited to 100 nautical miles XM/Sirius are used to send non-aircraft-specific data

7 Generic Elements of ATC System
Navigation Systems ATC controllers ensure aircrafts fly a cleared route En route Long-range coverage VHF omnidirectional range system (VOR system) Limited to line of sight communication Stations located at/near airports or on high ground Approach Higher precision required Runway classification: non-instrument (visual) vs. instrument

8 Generic Elements of ATC System
Surveillance Systems ATC controller observes and monitors traffic situations Position reporting – crew communicates its position Radar – currently used for most domestic systems Primary Radars – measure range by the round-trip time of an interrogation pulse reflected off of the aircraft Secondary Radars – aircraft is equipped with a transponder which receives and transmits an interrogation pulse along with an ID code for the responding aircraft (ATC Radar Beacon System) Direction (antenna) and altitude (ATCRBS) are also measured

9 Generic Elements of ATC System
Flight and Weather Information Systems Flight plans are managed in a central flight data processing system, distributed to various ATC facilities Increasing number of computer-based decision support tools are being developed to help controllers optimize the flow of traffic Current conditions provided to pilots and ATC controllers Extensive weather information systems generate and distribute general and airport-specific forecasts and observations winds aloft forecasts hazardous weather alerts pilot reports (PIREPS)

10 Airspace Controlled Uncontrolled Military operations
Traffic is supervised and managed by ATC Uncontrolled Aircrafts not directly managed by ATC Military operations Airspace is reserved for military Civilian aircrafts are prohibited from entering or require permission from military authorities before using it

11 ATC Structure Ground Control Tower Control Terminal Airspace Control
Manages aircraft and other vehicles on airport surface as they taxi to/from the runway Tower Control Manages take off and landing Radius of about 5 miles from the airport and ft high Terminal Airspace Control Manages descent, initial approach, and departure phases En route/Center Control Manages traffic above and between terminal airspace Oceanic/International Airspace Managed by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

12 ATC Operations Human-centered contract process
Controllers and flight crews negotiate for access to airport or airspace resources ATC controller observes traffic situation through surveillance system Controller issues commands to aircraft Standard Operating Procedures Altitude (east vs. west) Holding patterns to delay aircraft in air when high traffic makes it difficult to move to the next sector Priority for and equity of service (usually FCFS) Emergencies/Equipment failures

13 Future of ATC Systems Not much room for growth in US
Early plans include Increased use of satellite navigation systems Surveillance systems based on ADS-B Use of time as a control parameter in trajectory-based clearances Broad information sharing through system-wide information management Moving controllers to a more supervisory role and shifting some ATC functions to the cockpit

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