Presentation on theme: "This story relates to a aircrew that was taking a C-141 to Robins AFB for some depot work. During preflight the crew noticed via NOTAM’s that half of."— Presentation transcript:
1This story relates to a aircrew that was taking a C-141 to Robins AFB for some depot work. During preflight the crew noticed via NOTAM’s that half of the runway was closed. The AC had the co-pilot figure landing data for half the runway length, with the figures coming out ok based on the fact that they were stripped down for depot. Upon arrival at Robins the crew greased one on right on what they perceived as the runway centerline. Much to their surprise there was a truck located approx feet down the runway and about 25 feet left of centerline. Luckly they missed. Disgruntled they stormed into base-ops to file a complaint with the dispatcher, who then asked if they had read the NOTAM’s. The crew said they had and that they understood the later half was closed. No, the dispatcher replied the West half is closed. On this slide, the longer lights represent temporary work lights set up by CE and aligned with a laser beam. What appear to be the centerline lights are actually temporary HIRL’s configured to represent the left side of the runway. Had the crew done a thorough approach plate review they would have know that there are no centerline lights located on the runway at Robins.
2As far fetched as it seems, 2 aircrews (Navy P-3 pilots) did this same thing less than two months apart. The runway arrangement at Travis AFB is two runways, an outside and an inside (closest to Base-ops). The crews were doing night transition to the outside runway for about 3 hours. On the last landing they decided to do the full stop to the inside, thus reducing the taxi time to TA. On the landings, both crews landed with one gear truck in the dirt. Why? The outside runway has centerline lighting, while the inside does not. Both crews thought the HIRL’s were centerline lighting.
4Why do we have approach lighting Why do we have approach lighting? Is it because airports do it out of their good hearts? Does it raise our MDA’s? NO They are there to reduce visability requirements into the field. The systems are in place to allow revenue producing flights to land at their airports.Information for this course is found in:AFMAN Chapter 15 paragraphs 15.3 thru 15.5TERPs Appendix 5Flight Information Handbook Section BAFMOrder A U.S. Standard Flight Inspection Manual Sections 204,218The Need
5Centerline lights are a beautiful thing for aligning yourself with the runway, but are very poor at providing visual cues for attitude information. I could perceive myself to be in level flight when in reality I may not. That’s why the 1,000 foot roll bar was incorporated into approach lighting systems.
8VISUAL LANDING AIDS Approach Lighting Systems (ALS) Runway Lighting A series lighting systemsOmni-directional Approach Lighting System (ODALS)Lead-In Lighting System (LDIN)Runway End Identifier Lights (REILs)Runway LightingTaxiway markingsMost everyone briefs the approach lighting system during a good approach brief for a low visibility landing, but I doubt that few really know what to expect other than a bunch of lights.What is the difference between the A1 and the A4 system. You should leave this class with a much better knowledge of what the various A series lighting systems look like.We are going to ask you on several to identify various lighting systems. You won’t have to do that on the final test.6
9CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM Centerline guidanceRoll guidanceHigh intensity / controllable intensityAdequate lengthSequenced flashersGood centerline guidance is having the centerline lights on the actual runway centerline. Primitive lighting systems used to put the lights off to one side so you needed to judge where the actual centerline was which could be very difficult in a low visibility scenario.Centerline and roll guidance help to build a composite crosscheck. Unless you are doing a Category III ILS autoland, at some point you are going to have to transfer to visual cues to complete the landing.High intensity is important to cut through fog or other visibility restrictions. Under some conditions however, the bright lights might reflect and be more of a hindrance than a help. For that reason it is beneficial to be able to control the intensity to a comfortable level.The system length should be long enough to be useful in establishing that composite crosscheck. Length is also important to the extent that the approach procedure designer can often prescribe lower visibility minimums when a longer approach lighting system is installedSequenced flashers give a running path to follow.7
10“A” SERIES LIGHTING SYSTEMS BUILDING BLOCKS Centerline lights1000’ Roll barSide row bars500’ Roll barTermination barWing barsSequenced flashersRunway Alignment Indicator Lights (RAILs)8
11Threshold lights( A row of green lights on 5 foot centers extending across the runway threshold and outwards a distance of approximately 45 feet from the runway edges )Not really a part of the approach lighting system. Belongs in the runway lighting category. If there is a displaced threshold, the approach lighting system may end significantly before the actual threshold is reached.9
12Centerline lights 2400 feet long if glideslope is 2.75 deg or greater 3000 feet long if glideslope is less than 2.75 degmilitary field may be as short as 2000 feetThis example is a 2400’ system.Centerline lights( 13.5 feet wide with 5 evenly spaced lights )10
131000 ft roll bar 100 feet wide with 21 lights Two additional light bars are placed outside of the centerline light at 1000”. Each additional bar would have 8 lights, giving a total of 21 (8+8+5)1000 ft roll bar100 feet wide with 21 lights11
14“A” - SERIES APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEMS CommonaltiesCenterline lights1000 ft roll barDon’t forget, threshold lights will be associated with approach lighting systems in general, however they are a part of the runway lighting systems.12
15Sequenced flashing lights Flash in sequence toward the thresholdat a rate of twice per secondSequenced flashing lights13
16Side Row bars ( 3 red lights each ) FAR Part 91 states that to continue an approach below 100’ AGL, the pilot must be able to see the side row bars or termination bar. These are the side row bars.I think that if you only have a few of the side row bars in sight then you are still seeing too far short of the intended touchdown point to safely continue.Side Row bars( 3 red lights each )14
17500 ft roll bar ( 1 additional bar each side With weather at minumums for a Category II ILS, 1200 RVR, you might lose sight of the 1000’ roll bar underneath the nose of the aircraft before you can see the threshold lights (which can also function as a roll bar). The 500’ roll bar bridges that gap so that you should always have at lest one roll bar in sight.( 1 additional bar each sideof the 500’ centerline barwith 4 lights each )500 ft roll bar15
18ASequenced flashing lights are an integral part of this system. You’ll never see the A system without a dot. You can turn the sequenced flashing lights off separately from the other lights, however, they will always be available with this system.Note – During favorable weather conditions this system can be operated as a SSALR or an A3 dot. See picture on the following the SSALR slide.ALSF - 216
19It’s for Cat II & III approaches. ALSF 2?It’s for Cat II & III approaches.Many times questions arise on what weather minimums apply to CAT II & III approaches. Here they are.ILS Categories -1. ILS Category I - An ILS approach procedure which provides for approach to a height above touchdown of not less than 200 feet and with runway visual range of not less than 1,800 feet. Normally the visibility requirement is 2400 RVR, but with centerline and touchdown zone lighting it can be lowered to 1800.2. ILS Category II - An ILS approach procedure which provides for approach to a height above touchdown of not less than 100 feet and with runway visual range of not less than 1,200 feet.3. ILS Category III.a. IIIA - An ILS approach procedure which provides for approach without a decision height minimum and with runway visual range of not less than 700 feet.b. IIIB - An ILS approach procedure which provides for approach without a decision height minimum and with runway visual range of not less than 150 feet.c. IIIC - An ILS approach procedure which provides for approach without a decision height minimum and without runway visual range minimum.ILS PRM Approach - An instrument landing system (ILS) approach conducted to parallel runways whose extended centerlines are separated by less than 4,300 feet and the parallel runways have a Precision Runway Monitoring (PRM) system that permits simultaneous independent ILS approaches.
23Termination bar 50 feet wide with 11 red lights Sometimes, the middle of this bar is made up with white lights. So that there would be 5 white lights (ie a basic centerline light bar) flanked by bars with 3 red lights each.This was the other indication that FAR Part 91 stated should be in sight to continue below 100” on a category I ILS approach As opposed to the side row bars which might be 900’ from the end of the system. I feel better using the termination to continue because it is only 200’ from the end of the system (and approach end of the runway assuming that there is no displaced threshold)Termination bar50 feet wide with 11 red lights20
24Wing bars or pre-threshold bars Wing bars are sometimes referred to as pre-threshold bars.Wing bars or pre-threshold bars( 5 red lights each )21
25A1Sequenced flashing lights are an integral part of this system also so you will always have dot with the A1 system.As far as the name and numbering of the system. A1 and ALSF-1 are coincidental. The A (not the A2) was the ALSF-2 lighting system.ALSF - 122
31Simplified (spacing goes to 200 ft) 1000’ roll bar only has 15 lights Simplify the system.Note that there are 7 centerline lights for a distance of 1400’. This is the minimum length of centerline lights that you will have with the A series lighting systems.Simplified (spacing goes to 200 ft)1000’ roll bar only has 15 lightsLast centerline light at 1400 ft28
32Runway Alignment Indicator Lights ( RAILs ) Runway alignment indicator lights are sequenced flashing lights. Note that they extend out beyond the centerline lights at 200’ spacing. RAILs and sequenced flashing lights are virtually identical. We call them “sequenced flashing lights” when they are located with the centerline lights. We call them RAILs when they extend beyond the centerline lightsRunway Alignment Indicator Lights ( RAILs )29
33A3 SSALR Short, simplified approach lighting system with RAILs. Runway Alignment Indicator Lights are an integral part of this system. You will always have a dot with an A3 system. The dot is for generic sequenced flashing lights. Depending on the system, they might either be RAILs or “sequenced flashing lights”.Note – During favorable weather conditions the ALSF-2 system can be operated as a SSALR or an A3 dot. The picture on the next slide depicts the ALSF-2 being operated as SSALR.SSALR30
34Note – During favorable weather conditions the ALSF-2 system can be operated as a SSALR or an A3 dot. This picture depicts the ALSF-2 being operated as SSALR. It is important to note that you may be expecting to see the ALSF-2 but instead you see this, so don’t be surprised.
35Remove the RAILS and we create a new system. No RAILs31
36A4 MALS / SSALS Short, simplified approach lighting system. Medium intensity approach lighting system. (All medium intensity are short and simplified so medium intensity implies short and simplified.)MALS / SSALS32
37Sequenced flashing lights Note that these are “sequenced flashing lights” since they are located with the centerline lights.Sequenced flashing lights33
38A4MALSF / SSALSFShort, simplified approach lighting system with sequenced flashing lights.Medium intensity approach lighting system with sequenced flashing lights.So the A4 system can come with or without sequenced flashing lights.34
40Change from high intensity to medium intensity. 36
41A5That is the only difference between the A3 and the A5 systems.RAILs are an integral part of this system.MALSR37
42Take a look at this approach to McConnell AFB Take a look at this approach to McConnell AFB. Many an aircrew messed this up and almost landed on-top of another aircraft waiting for departure on 1R. Look closely, the approach lighting system is set-up on the DEPARTURE runway. All 1L has is PAPI’s, it would be extemley easy to bite on the lights to 1R in a night environment. READ APPROACHES CLOSELY.
43A1 A2 A2 or or Information for this course is found in: AFMAN Chapter 15 paragraphs 15.3 thru 15.5TERPs Appendix 5Flight Information Handbook Section BAFMOrder A U.S. Standard Flight Inspection Manual Sections 204,218A1 OR A22
44A4A4orCould be A4 or A4 dot depending on weather or not there are sequenced flashers2
45A The first 35mm slide introduces approach and runway lighting. Information for this course is found in:AFMAN Chapter 15 paragraphs 15.3 thru 15.5TERPs Appendix 5Flight Information Handbook Section BAFMOrder A U.S. Standard Flight Inspection Manual Sections 204,2182
46A2A2orCould be A2 or A2 dot depending on weather or not there are sequenced flashers.2
48RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS (REIL) REIL's are installed at many airfields to provide rapid and positive identification of the approach end of a particular runway. The system consists of a pair of synchronized flashing lights located laterally on each side of the runway threshold. REIL's may be either omnidirectional or unidirectional facing the approach area. They are effective for:a. Identification of a runway surrounded by a preponderance of other lighting.b. Identification of a runway which lacks contrast with surrounding terrain.c. Identification of a runway during reduced visibility.2
49This is a picture depicting REIL’s, these are obviously not flashing due to software limitations, however if they were they would be flashing at a rate of twice per second. They could be unidirectional or omnidirectional (if associated with LDIN or ODALS approach systems.
50ODALS ODALS. Omnidirectional Approach Lighting System. System Description. The system consists of seven strobe lights located in the approach area of a runway. Five of these strobes are located on the extended runway centerline starting 300 feet from the runway landing threshold and each 300-foot interval out to and including 1,500 feet from the threshold. The other two strobes are located on the sides of the runway threshold. The strobe fights flash in sequence toward the runway at a rate of once per second with the two units located at the runway end flashing simultaneously. The strobes have three intensity steps.
51ODALS 1500’ ODALS. Omnidirectional Approach Lighting System. System Description. The system consists of seven strobe lights located in the approach area of a runway. Five of these strobes are located on the extended runway centerline starting 300 feet from the runway landing threshold and each 300-foot interval out to and including 1,500 feet from the threshold. The other two strobes are located on the sides of the runway threshold. The strobe fights flash in sequence toward the runway at a rate of once per second with the two units located at the runway end flashing simultaneously. The strobes have three intensity steps.
52LDIN LDIN, Lead-In Lighting System. a. System Description. The LDIN is usually installed as a supplement to a MALS or SSALS. This portion of the facility consists of a number of sequenced flashing fights beginning at a distance from the threshold determined by the need and terrain. These lights flash twice per second in sequence toward the threshold, have no intensity control, and operate on all brightness steps of the controlling system.
57RUNWAY LIGHTING Runway Edge Lighting Touchdown zone lighting HIRL, MIRL, LIRLTouchdown zone lightingCenterline lightingTaxiway lightingAll are considered part of runway environment.58
582000’ 1000’ 2000’ 200’ IN-RUNWAY LIGHTING a. Runway Centerline Lighting System (RCLS): Runway centerline lights are installed on some precision approach runways to facilitate landing under adverse visibility conditions. They are located along the runway centerline and are spaced at 50-foot intervals. When viewed from the landing threshold, the runway centerline lights are white until the last 3,000 feet of the runway. The white lights begin to alternate with red for the next 2,000 feet, and for the last 1,000 feet of the runway, all centerline lights are red.b. Touchdown Zone Lights (TDZL): Touchdown zone lights are installed on some precision approach runways to indicate the touchdown zone when landing under adverse visibility conditions. They consist of two rows of transverse light bars disposed symmetrically about the runway centerline. The system consists of steady-burning white lights which start 100 feet beyond the landing threshold and extend to 3,000 feet beyond the landing threshold or to the midpoint of the runway, whichever is less.c. Taxiway Lead-Off Lights: Taxiway lead-off lights extend from the runway centerline to a point on an exit taxiway to expedite movement of aircraft from the runway. These lights alternate green and yellow from the runway centerline to the runway holding position or the ILS/MLS critical area, as appropriate.d. Land and Hold Short Lights: Land and hold short lights are used to indicate the hold short point on certain runways which are approved for Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO). Land and hold short lights consist of a row of pulsing white lights installed across the runway at the hold short point. Where installed, the lights will be on anytime LAHSO is in effect.2000’200’
59Surface Movement Guidance and Control System SMGCSSurface Movement Guidance and Control SystemI n order to enhance taxiing capabilities in low visibility conditions and reduce the potential for runway incursions, improvements have been made in signage, lighting, and markings. In addition to these improvements, Advisory Circular (AC) , Surface Movement Guidance and Control System, more commonly known as SMGCS (acronym pronounced 'SMIGS'), requires a low visibility taxi plan for any airport which has takeoff or landing operations with less than 1,200 feet runway visual range (RVR) visibility conditions. This plan affects both air crew and vehicle operators. Taxi routes to and from the SMGCS runway must be designated and displayed on a SMGCS Low Visibility Taxi Route chart.A brief detail of SMGCS features is listed in the following slides but SMGCS airports may not have all of these features. For additional SMGCS information refer to the Aeronautical Information Manual or the particular airport's SMGCS Low Visibility Taxi Route chart.
60Pilots Shall Never Cross An Illuminated Red Stop Bar Stop bars are required at intersections of an illuminated (centerline lighted) taxiway and an active runway for operations less than 600 feet RVR. These lights consist of a row of red unidirectional, in-pavement lights installed along the holding position marking. When extinguished by the controller, they confirm clearance for the pilot or vehicle operator to enter the runway. Controlled stop bars operate in conjunction with green centerline lead-on lights, which extend from the stop bar location onto the runway.Normal operation of stop bars include:When ATC issues a clearance to the pilot to enter the runway they activate a timer. This action causes the red stop bar to be extinguished and the green lead-on lights to illuminate.After traveling approximately 150 feet beyond the stop bar, the aircraft or vehicle activates a sensor. This sensor relights the red stop bar and extinguishes the first segment of the lead-on lights between the stop bar and the sensor. This protects the runway against inadvertent entry by a trailing aircraft or vehicle.The aircraft then activates another sensor at approximately 300 feet which extinguishes the remaining lead-on lights.If either sensor is not activated within a specified time limit, the stop bar will automatically reset to "on" and both sets of lead-on lights will be turned "off."Should the pilot or vehicle operator have a discrepancy between the condition of the stop bar or lead-on lights and the verbal clearance from the controller, the aircraft or vehicle shall stop immediately.WARNING!Pilots Shall Never Cross An Illuminated Red Stop BarRunway guard lights, either elevated or in-pavement, will be installed at all taxiways which provide access to an active runway. They consist of alternately flashing yellow lights. These lights are used to denote both the presence of an active runway and identify the location of a runway holding position marking.Taxiway Centerline lights guide ground traffic under low visibility conditions and during darkness. These lights consist of green in-pavement lights.ATC will verify the position of aircraft and vehicles using geographic position markings. The markings can be used either as hold points or for position reporting. These checkpoints or "pink spots" will be outlined with a black and white circle and be designated with a number, a letter, or both.Three yellow in-pavement clearance bar lights will be used to denote holding positions for aircraft and vehicles. When used for hold points, they are co-located with geographic position markings.
61Land and Hold Short Operations LAHSOLand and Hold Short OperationsLightingThe current FAA LAHSO lighting configuration consists of five, six, or seven pulsing white lights installed in the pavement at the hold-short point. The FAA decided on this lighting configuration after conducting a limited study at BOS several years ago. The lights were installed only at four airports in the U.S. The current FAA LAHSO lighting configuration is illustrated in Figure 2.The pulsing white lights indicate the hold-short point. You may not proceed beyond the pulsing white lights without ATC approval.If the lights are installed and operational, they must be turned on.Lights are required for night LAHSO effective April 15, Do not conduct night LAHSO unless the required LAHSO lighting is installed and operating.Lights are not required for day LAHSO until June 8, 2000.Be aware that if you decline a LAHSO clearance and are landing full-length on a runway with operational lights, the lights will remain on. Also, if you take off from a runway, the LAHSO lights will be on if LAHSO is in use. If in doubt, verify your clearance with ATC.The FAA has agreed to install the improved FAA LAHSO lighting configuration that includes two sets of lights. A minimum of six in-pavement, continuously illuminated white lights indicate the hold-short point. Again, you may not proceed beyond the hold-short point without ATC approval.The second set of lights consists of a minimum of six in-pavement, pulsing white lights that indicate the alert point. The alert point is approximately 1,000 feet, or 300 meters, in front of the hold-short point. The alert point provides the pilot with a visual warning that only 1,000 feet of runway remain until the hold-short point. This philosophy is consistent with current instrument runway lighting configurations, and should significantly increase the margin of safety.The improved FAA LAHSO lighting configuration is illustrated in Figure 3.The improved configuration is required for day and night LAHSO after June 8, 2000.Be aware that if you decline a LAHSO clearance, the lights will remain on. If in doubt, verify your clearance with ATC.
62SUMMARY VISUAL LANDING AIDS Approach Lighting Systems (ALS)“A” series lighting systemsOmni-directional Approach Lighting System (ODALS)Lead-In Lighting System (LDIN)Runway End Identifier Lights (REILs)Visual Glide Slope IndicatorsRunway LightingTaxiway Marking63