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Equine Dental Abnormalities & Dentistry Brendan Kraus, DVM Photos courtesy Leon Scrutchfield,DVM.

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Presentation on theme: "Equine Dental Abnormalities & Dentistry Brendan Kraus, DVM Photos courtesy Leon Scrutchfield,DVM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Equine Dental Abnormalities & Dentistry Brendan Kraus, DVM Photos courtesy Leon Scrutchfield,DVM

2 Equine Teeth Horses evolved as a continuously grazing animal Horses evolved as a continuously grazing animal Free range horses graze hours per day. Free range horses graze hours per day. Dental problems have been made worse by man altering the horse s natural lifestyle Dental problems have been made worse by man altering the horse s natural lifestyle Stalled horses eat grain or pelleted feed in short periods of time. Stalled horses eat grain or pelleted feed in short periods of time. The composition of the diet has a great influence on the development of dental abnormalities The composition of the diet has a great influence on the development of dental abnormalities Lack of grazing to wear incisors Lack of grazing to wear incisors Lack of fiber mastication to wear cheek teeth Lack of fiber mastication to wear cheek teeth Lateral movement of jaw is important Lateral movement of jaw is important

3 Equine Teeth, cont. Horses developed teeth suited to mastication of grass High Crowns High Crowns Abrasives would wear out low-crowned teeth Abrasives would wear out low-crowned teeth Increased # of cusps Increased # of cusps Complex pattern of enamel Complex pattern of enamel Self sharpening (layers with different degrees of hardness) Self sharpening (layers with different degrees of hardness) Increased size of grinding teeth Increased size of grinding teeth Formation of grinding teeth into a battery (arcade) Formation of grinding teeth into a battery (arcade)

4 Hypsodont Teeth Adult Teeth are continually erupting. Adult Teeth are continually erupting. At least 2-3mm per year to allow for worn away tooth At least 2-3mm per year to allow for worn away tooth Allows for dental abnormalities to compound themselves Allows for dental abnormalities to compound themselves Teeth will eventually slow down eruption, and wear out Teeth will eventually slow down eruption, and wear out

5 Horse Tooth Complex Enamel Enamel Pulp/dentin complex Pulp/dentin complex Cementum Cementum

6 Young Teeth/Old Teeth

7 Veterinary Dentistry The field has recently been advanced with the development of improved tools and sedatives The field has recently been advanced with the development of improved tools and sedatives Artificially wear down the teeth with manual or power instrumentation Artificially wear down the teeth with manual or power instrumentation Correct problems that have developed Correct problems that have developed Maintenance to prevent problem development Maintenance to prevent problem development Shaping of teeth to enhance use/performance Shaping of teeth to enhance use/performance

8 Veterinary Dentistry, cont. Veterinary Dentistry, cont. Help Promote Effective Chewing Help Promote Effective Chewing Help Prevent Colic and Choke Help Prevent Colic and Choke Help protect the mouth s soft tissues Help protect the mouth s soft tissues Help prevent discomfort from the bit Help prevent discomfort from the bit Help prevent discomfort from the bridle Help prevent discomfort from the bridle Help prevent neck and back pain Help prevent neck and back pain Help alleviate problems in the Golden Years Help alleviate problems in the Golden Years

9 Dental Abnormality Symptoms NONE! NONE! Slobber Slobber Eat Slowly Eat Slowly Tilt Head Tilt Head Quid Quid Head Toss Head Toss Chew the bit Chew the bit Tail Swing Tail Swing Bucking Bucking Refuse collect or take lead Refuse collect or take lead Facial swelling Facial swelling Nasal discharge Nasal discharge Draining tracts Draining tracts

10 Oral Examination Wash out feed material Wash out feed material Sedation Sedation Stocks/Restraint Stocks/Restraint Full Mouth Speculum Full Mouth Speculum Light source Light source

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12 Abnormalities Sharp Enamel Points Sharp Enamel Points Hooks Hooks Ramps Ramps Steps Steps Waves Waves Transverse Ridges Transverse Ridges Incisors Incisors Bite Bite Retained Caps Retained Caps Periodontal Disease Periodontal Disease Wolf Teeth Wolf Teeth

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14 Sharp Enamel Points

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21 Hooks

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27 Caps-Retained Deciduous Premolars First 3 Cheek Teeth in Place at Birth First 3 Cheek Teeth in Place at Birth Permanents erupt in-caps shed Permanents erupt in-caps shed 2 Years Eight Months 2 Years Eight Months 2 years Ten Months 2 years Ten Months 3 Years Eight Months 3 Years Eight Months

28 Lower Jaw Caps

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30 Upper Caps

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34 What Killed This Horse?

35 Wolf Teeth

36 Blind Wolf Tooth

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38 Lower Wolf Tooth

39 Canines

40 Incisors

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44 Retained Baby Incisor

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46 Wave Mouth

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52 Other Problems

53 Parrot Mouth

54 Extractions Some teeth are beyond correction Some teeth are beyond correction Teeth which are loose, broken, or in the Teeth which are loose, broken, or in the wrong position may need to be extracted wrong position may need to be extracted Extraction can be easy or very difficult Extraction can be easy or very difficult Specialized equipment and sedation is Specialized equipment and sedation is required. required.

55 Equipment

56 Diamond Burr

57 Picks/Gingival Elevators

58 Mirror

59 Slim Hand Float

60 Extractors

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62 Dental Conditions: You Never Know Till You Look Dental Conditions: You Never Know Till You Look

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64 Questions?


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