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Equine dental diseases Joan Howard ISU Equine Field Services.

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Presentation on theme: "Equine dental diseases Joan Howard ISU Equine Field Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Equine dental diseases Joan Howard ISU Equine Field Services

2 Why do horses need regular and thorough dental care? To prevent serious health problems To make eating and performing more comfortable for the horse

3 Dental Anatomy

4 Eruption of teeth Horses have long permanent teeth which continue to erupt during the horses life time.

5 Width of mandible and maxilla Maxilla is wider than mandible Outside of upper cheek teeth and inside of lower teeth become sharp

6 Types of dental disease Congenital abnormalities Eruption abnormalities Dental trauma Disorders of wear Periodontal disease Tooth infections

7 Congenital abnormalities Underbite Overbite

8 Eruption abnormalities Variations from the normal pattern in which teeth penetrate the gums.

9 Eruption abnormalities: supernumerary teeth (extra teeth) Last molar the most commonly affected cheek tooth If tooth is unopposed may cause problems

10 Eruption abnormalities Displaced eruptions

11 Eruption Abnormalities Dentigerous cyst Dental tissue is located at sites away from the jaw often found in the temporal area with a sinus tract leading to the base of the opposite ear

12 Eruption abnormalities Unerupted wolf teeth wolf teeth lay parallel to the maxilla instead of erupting through the gum If not removed may cause resentment of bit

13 Eruption abnormalities Retained caps If caps are not shed may impact permanent tooth If removed too early may stop cause abnormal development of cheek teeth

14 Eruption abnormalities Eruption cysts Pressure of cap on unerupted permanent tooth can cause cyst formation in the mandible may become infected

15 Eruption abnormalities Retained deciduous (baby teeth) incisors May be mistaken as supernumerary teeth Along with overcrowding, common in miniature horses

16 Dental trauma May result from dental procedures Often due to Direct trauma

17 Dental trauma Failure to treat appropriately may cause serious malocclusions X-rays may be needed to evaluate the supporting bone

18 Disorders of wear chewing surface irregularities interfere with horses ability to chew food most common form of equine dental disease

19 Disorders of wear Sharp enamel points cheek teeth erupt, wear and develop sharp enamel edges sharp edges can cause cheek and tongue ulcerations

20 Sharp enamel points pain may change chewing patterns and cause abnormalities of wear

21 Maxillary cheek teeth before and after floating

22 Disorders of wear Hooks tooth overgrowths which develop as a result of incomplete chewing surface contact First cheek teeth and last cheek teeth commonly develop hooks which may cause oral pain and interfere with chewing

23 Rostral hooks of second premolar

24 Disorders of wear Wave mouth an undulating appearance of the cheek teeth

25 Disorders of wear Step mouth A rectangular or triangular over growth opposite a missing or shorter opposing tooth

26 Disorders of wear Abnormalities of incisors More common on high grain diets Four different types

27 Periodontal disease Progressive inflammation of the supporting structures of the tooth Pockets around gum-line of teeth may form

28 Complications of periodontal disease Feed and debris may become impacted in the periodontal pockets and cause infection and loss of the tooth

29 Tooth infections May be caused by trauma, abnormal wear, or periodontal disease May cause nasal discharge, sinus infection, draining from jaw, or loss of the tooth Tooth often needs to be removed

30 Infected maxillary cheek tooth

31 Infundibular necrosis irregularities may be packed with food and lead to bacterial fermentation dissolution of surrounding cementum, dentin and enamel infection of the pulp chamber splitting or cracking of the tooth during mastication

32 Dental tumors Odontogenic tumors Ameloblastoma Ameloblastic odontomas Complex odontoma Compound odontoma Cementoma

33 performing the dental Equipment Examination Floating and correcting abnormalities

34 Equipment: Tranquilization Safer and easier to do a thorough examination and treatment

35 Equipment Dental halter: needs a noseband that allows the horse to open its mouth wide enough to perform dental procedures

36 Equipment Mouth speculums: Gag: a wedge is placed between the upper and lower molar arcades. Can cause trauma to the teeth

37 Equipment Full mouth speculum More cumbersome Need chemical restraint Mouth shouldnt be left open for more than 30 minutes. Allows better visual and digital inspection of oral cavity

38 McAllen style speculum Mcpherson type

39 Stubbs speculum

40 Equipment Head support

41 Equipment Dose syringe Light source

42 The examination Look at the whole animal History of medical of behavioral problems Current on tetanus vaccination? Consider the possibility of other systemic problems

43 Examination of the head Note symmetry and conformation of head. Check for swelling of mandible or maxilla Note if nasal or ocular discharge Open mouth and percuss frontal and maxillary sinuses. Note lymph nodes

44 Oral examination Rinse mouth with dose syringe 4 min after tranquilization of horse Note if food packed in cheeks

45 Exam with full mouth speculum Make sure that incisors are well placed on speculum Keep free hand on the horses nose or on the speculum

46 Examination with full mouth speculum Observe oral soft tissue (palate, tongue, buccal mucosa).

47 Exam with full mouth speculum Teeth: look at conformation, position and number. Occlusal surface mid arcade long teeth wave mouth cupped out teeth decayed infundibula missing or damaged crowns

48 Treatment of Dental Disease Equipment Routine dental care Treatment of dental disorders

49 Hand floats

50 Rotary tools

51 Air driven equipment

52 Power float

53 Floating the cheek teeth with hand tools purpose of floating is: to remove sharp enamel points from the buccal edges of the maxillary cheek teeth lingual aspect of the mandibular cheek teeth to round the rostral surfaces of 06s to Remove hooks, and level the arcades to restore the normal degree angle to occlusal surfaces

54 Maxillary cheek teeth Easier to use two hands. Left hand is on the shaft of the float to control direction and amount of pressure placed on float. Keep blade at about a 45 degree angle to buccal side of tooth.

55 Floating mandibular cheek teeth Remove enamel points from lingual edges of mandibular cheek teeth. Use a straight or offset float. Use two hands

56 Bit seats the bit may cause discomfort when it presses soft tissue in the mouth against the rostral surfaces of 06s To make a bit seat, the rostral aspects of 06s are rounded

57 Wolf tooth extraction Local analgesics can be used Burgess elevator and root elevator loosen tooth

58 Treatment: disorders of wear Over-growths are removed and strive to return to normal occlusion In older horses over-growths are just taken out of occlusion

59 Treatment: disorders of wear Incisor wear abnormalities Avoid removing more than 2mm of incisors in one session

60 With fractures of mandible or avulsed incisors Stabilization may prevent malocclusions

61 Treatment: dental trauma Pulp capping Debride and stop bleeding Calcium hydroxide or dental resin used to restore tooth Keep out of occlusion 3 months If periapical sepsis remove tooth

62 Treatment: periodontal disease Prevention by regular prophylactic care Correct abnormal wear Periodontal pockets irrigated Pockets enlarged if possible to discourage food packing If tooth is diseased, endodontic procedures or extraction may be necessary

63 Treatment: eruption abnormalities Removing deciduous incisors Radiographs if position of deciduous or permanent teeth is questionable Elevate alveolar attachments Remove with forceps

64 Treatment: eruption abnormalities Eruption cysts Remove deciduous cap if present (may need radiograph to identify) Antibiotics if septic If apical damage may require extraction

65 Treatment: eruption abnormalities Unerupted wolf teeth May use radiographs to identify Place burgess over mucosa of rostral aspect of tooth Tooth is elevated from attachments

66 Treatment: eruption abnormalities Retained deciduous teeth Removing deciduous premolars Identify crease between deciduous and permanent tooth Use forceps, extractors or screw driver Clamp base of cap Rock cap lingually

67 Treatment: infundibular necrosis Extraction of tooth if severe Restoration of defect Remove food from defect Round bur used to prepare area Dental adhesive then composit resin applied in 2mm layers

68 Treatment: Apical root infections Conservative therapy with antibiotics Better prognosis with mandibular teeth Use broad spectrum antibiotics May be more successful in younger animals

69 Treatment: apical root infections Sinus involvement trephination and irrigation Surgical endodontics (apicoectomy, root end resection) More successful in mandibular cheek teeth Root of tooth must be mature Mixed results among practitioners

70 Surgical endodontics

71 Treatment: apical root infections Tooth extraction Lateral buccotomy Repulsion Punch and mallet used to drive tooth from its socket Can damage supporting bone Breaks up tooth into small pieces


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