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Equine Dentition Equine Health Management November 30, 2011 Presentation by Erin Pittman.

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Presentation on theme: "Equine Dentition Equine Health Management November 30, 2011 Presentation by Erin Pittman."— Presentation transcript:

1 Equine Dentition Equine Health Management November 30, 2011 Presentation by Erin Pittman

2 Never Look a Gift Horse in the Mouth Aging a horse by teeth Diseases of the teeth Diseases of the oral cavity

3 Teeth Incisors – cutting teeth, closest to the front of the mouth Canines – common in adult males, less common and smaller in adult females Found in the gap between the incisors and premolars Premolars – the three or four cheek teeth closest to front of mouth Molars – the three cheek teeth at the back of the mouth

4 Deciduous Teeth A total of 24 baby or milk teeth in the young horse 12 incisors and 12 premolars No canines or molars!

5 Permanent Teeth Replace the deciduous teeth, where present The deciduous tooth that precedes the permanent tooth is called a cap From eruption to being in wear is ~6 months Continue to grow, using up the reserve crown over many years Adult stallion with wolf teeth has 42 teeth

6 Premolars Molars Canine


8 Permanent Teeth Six cheek teeth Premolars 2, 3, and 4 Molars 1, 2, and 3 Fourth cheek tooth is the first molar First premolar = wolf tooth May be absent or very small in adult Incisors: Central Intermediate Corner

9 Eruption Dates DeciduousPermanent 1 st incisor0 – 1 week2 ½ years 2 nd incisor4 – 6 week3 ½ years 3 rd incisor6 – 9 months4 ½ years *Canine4 – 5 years 1 st Premolar (wolf tooth) 5 – 6 months

10 Eruption Dates DeciduousPermanent 2 nd Premolar0 – 2 weeks2 ½ years 3 rd Premolar0 – 2 weeks3 years 4 th Premolar0 – 2 weeks4 years 1 st Molar9 – 12 months 2 nd Molar2 years 3 rd Molar3 ½ - 4 years

11 Aging by teeth An imprecise science – after the permanent teeth have erupted and are in wear, aging by teeth is a matter of judgement!

12 Things to consider Permanent vs. deciduous teeth 7 and 11 year hooks Points and stars. Enamel cups and dental stars Galvaynes Groove Incisor Angle Lip tattoo. 1997 started the alphabet again at A


14 One Year Old

15 Two Years Old

16 Three Years Old

17 Four Years Old

18 Five Years Old

19 Six Years Old


21 Seven Years Old 7-year hook

22 Eight Years Old

23 Nine Years Old

24 Ten Years Old Galvaynes Groove

25 Twelve Years Old

26 Fifteen Years Old

27 Seventeen Years Old

28 Twenty Years Old and Older

29 Dental Problems? Quidding Spilling/spitting grain or hay Difficulty chewing Cheek sensitivity or swelling Sensitivity to the bit Head shaking or head tilt Foul odor from mouth or nostrils Excess salivation Exaggerated tongue movements Bleeding from mouth (especially after riding) Poor body condition Rough haircoat

30 Dental Examinations Probably need to be tranquilized! MUST use a full-mouth speculum Visual and digital examination essential How often?

31 Dental Problems Retained dental caps Permanent teeth cant push deciduous teeth out Lampas Swelling in hard palate mucous membrane Two year old bumps Bone reacts with teeth lump below jaw Wolf teeth Not always next to premolar 2

32 Wolf tooth location and extraction

33 Dental Problems Canines Dont always erupt Molar hooks Upper premolar 2 Lower third molar (most painful) Float inside lower jaw, outside of upper jaw Cribbing (woodchewing) Air isnt swallowed!

34 Floating the teeth to get rid of sharp points on molars and premolars Outside of upper teeth Inside of lower teeth

35 Dental Problems Windsucking (Stumpsucking) Similar to Cribbing but doesnt require something to set teeth on May cause colic Overdevelopment of neck muscles Parrot Mouth/overshot jaw Increased incidence of molar hooks Decreased ability to prehend food

36 Parrot Mouth

37 Dental Problems Monkey Mouth/undershot jaw Wave Mouth Can be caused by retained cap Uneven wear of premolars and molars Step mouth Missing teeth/uneven wear Cracked or fractured teeth


39 Dental Problems Periodontal disease Dental decay Tooth root abscess Supernumerary teeth Dentigerous cyst Salivary duct injuries Tongue lacerations Oral ulcers

40 Dental Problems Cleft Palate Odontomas Bishoping

41 Dysphagia Difficulty or unwillingness to eat Slow and messy feeding Extreme bad breath Quidding Productive cough Nasal reflux of saliva, food and fluids Possible Causes: Strangles infection Stylohyoid osteomyleitis Physical trauma Poisoning, such as lead Botulism Inability to prehend, chew and swallow properly

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