Presentation on theme: "Equine Dentition Equine Health Management November 30, 2011 Presentation by Erin Pittman."— Presentation transcript:
Equine Dentition Equine Health Management November 30, 2011 Presentation by Erin Pittman
Never Look a Gift Horse in the Mouth Aging a horse by teeth Diseases of the teeth Diseases of the oral cavity
Teeth Incisors – cutting teeth, closest to the front of the mouth Canines – common in adult males, less common and smaller in adult females Found in the gap between the incisors and premolars Premolars – the three or four cheek teeth closest to front of mouth Molars – the three cheek teeth at the back of the mouth
Deciduous Teeth A total of 24 baby or milk teeth in the young horse 12 incisors and 12 premolars No canines or molars!
Permanent Teeth Replace the deciduous teeth, where present The deciduous tooth that precedes the permanent tooth is called a cap From eruption to being in wear is ~6 months Continue to grow, using up the reserve crown over many years Adult stallion with wolf teeth has 42 teeth
Permanent Teeth Six cheek teeth Premolars 2, 3, and 4 Molars 1, 2, and 3 Fourth cheek tooth is the first molar First premolar = wolf tooth May be absent or very small in adult Incisors: Central Intermediate Corner
Eruption Dates DeciduousPermanent 1 st incisor0 – 1 week2 ½ years 2 nd incisor4 – 6 week3 ½ years 3 rd incisor6 – 9 months4 ½ years *Canine4 – 5 years 1 st Premolar (wolf tooth) 5 – 6 months
Eruption Dates DeciduousPermanent 2 nd Premolar0 – 2 weeks2 ½ years 3 rd Premolar0 – 2 weeks3 years 4 th Premolar0 – 2 weeks4 years 1 st Molar9 – 12 months 2 nd Molar2 years 3 rd Molar3 ½ - 4 years
Aging by teeth An imprecise science – after the permanent teeth have erupted and are in wear, aging by teeth is a matter of judgement!
Things to consider Permanent vs. deciduous teeth 7 and 11 year hooks Points and stars. Enamel cups and dental stars Galvaynes Groove Incisor Angle Lip tattoo. 1997 started the alphabet again at A
Dental Problems? Quidding Spilling/spitting grain or hay Difficulty chewing Cheek sensitivity or swelling Sensitivity to the bit Head shaking or head tilt Foul odor from mouth or nostrils Excess salivation Exaggerated tongue movements Bleeding from mouth (especially after riding) Poor body condition Rough haircoat
Dental Examinations Probably need to be tranquilized! MUST use a full-mouth speculum Visual and digital examination essential How often?
Dental Problems Retained dental caps Permanent teeth cant push deciduous teeth out Lampas Swelling in hard palate mucous membrane Two year old bumps Bone reacts with teeth lump below jaw Wolf teeth Not always next to premolar 2
Dental Problems Canines Dont always erupt Molar hooks Upper premolar 2 Lower third molar (most painful) Float inside lower jaw, outside of upper jaw Cribbing (woodchewing) Air isnt swallowed!
Floating the teeth to get rid of sharp points on molars and premolars Outside of upper teeth Inside of lower teeth
Dental Problems Windsucking (Stumpsucking) Similar to Cribbing but doesnt require something to set teeth on May cause colic Overdevelopment of neck muscles Parrot Mouth/overshot jaw Increased incidence of molar hooks Decreased ability to prehend food
Dysphagia Difficulty or unwillingness to eat Slow and messy feeding Extreme bad breath Quidding Productive cough Nasal reflux of saliva, food and fluids Possible Causes: Strangles infection Stylohyoid osteomyleitis Physical trauma Poisoning, such as lead Botulism Inability to prehend, chew and swallow properly