2Health ManagementVaccine- a product given to a horse to stimulate its immune system and help provide protection against disease.There are two types:Killed vaccine- contains killed or inactivated organisms.Modified live vaccine- contains organisms that are live but modified in some way to make them incapable of producing severe disease.
3Health ManagementVaccination- defined as the administration, by injection or intranasal means, of some agent (such as bacterium or virus) into an animal for the purpose of preventing disease.Cannot depend on vaccination alone for disease prevention.Individual horses vary widely in their response to similar vaccinations.
4Health Management Vaccination Heredity also plays a part in the level of resistance.Nutritional management practices also affect degrees of resistance.
5Health Management Using teeth to determine age The best way to determine the age of the horse is from good records.When a record of age does not exist, the teeth furnish the best estimation of the age of a horse.Age determination is made by a study of the twelve front teeth, called incisors.The two central pairs both above and below are called centrals (centers), pincers, or nippers.
6Health ManagementThe four teeth adjacent to these two pairs are called intermediatesThe outer four teeth are designated as corners.The horse has 24 deciduous (temporary) teeth and 42 adult (permanent) teeth.
7Health ManagementFour key changes in the teeth can be used to estimate the age of horses.Occurrence of permanent teethDisappearance of cupsAngle of incidenceShape of the surface of the teeth
8Health Management Occurrence of Permanent Teeth Horses have two sets of teeth, one temporary (baby or milk teeth) and one permanent.Temporary incisors tend to erupt in pairs at eight days, eight weeks, and eight months of age.
9Health Management Occurrence of Permanent Teeth Permanent teeth are larger, longer, and darker in color.The four center permanent teeth appear (two above and two below) as the animal approaches three years of age, the intermediates at four, and the corners at five. This constitutes a full mouth.
10Health Management Disappearance of Cups Young permanent teeth have deep indentures in the center of their surfaces referred to as cups.Cups are commonly used as reference points in age determination.In general, the cups become smooth in the lower centers, intermediates, corners, upper centers, intermediates, and corners at six, seven, eight, nine, ten, and eleven years of age respectively.
11Health Management Disappearance of Cups A smooth mouth theoretically appears at eleven.As cups disappear dental stars appear-first as narrow, yellow lines in front of the central enamel ring,then as dark circles near the center of the tooth.
12Health Management Angle of Incidence The angle of incidence or contact changes from approximately 160 to 180 degrees in young horses, to less than a right angle as the incisors appear to slant forward and outward with aging.
13Health Management Shape of the Surface of the teeth The teeth change substantially in shape during wear and aging.The teeth appear broad and flat in young horses.Twenty-year-old teeth may be twice as deep from front to rear as they are wide.
14Health Management Obvious signs of dental disease can include: Weight lossHalitosis (bad breath, foul smelling odor from the mouth)Excessive droolingDropping feed while eating; difficulty chewing
15Health Management Subtle signs of dental disease can include: Head tossingExcessive chewing of the bitBehavior problems while being ridden (bucking, fighting against the bit)
16Health Management Common Dental Abnormalities Enamel Points- sharp points that develop on the outside of the upper teeth and the inside of the lower teeth as a horse grinds its food back and forth.Removed by using a special file (called a float) to rasp down the sharp edges.Carrying out this process is called floating teeth.
17Health Management Common Dental Abnormalities Hooks and Ramps Hooks are sharp points found on the first upper teeth.Ramps are sharp points found on the last lower cheek teeth.A small hook or ramp can be removed by simple filing.A taller point may require cutting with a molar cutter before being filled.
18Health Management Retained Caps Deciduous premolars are normally replaced by the permanent premolars without a problemOccasionally a deciduous premolar fails to fall outThe retained tooth is called a cap.Retained caps can result in pain for the horse and can lead to decreased feed consumption and lowered performance.The caps can be easily removed by a veterinarian.
19Health Management Malalignment If the incisors or cheek teeth of the horse do not align properly, the teeth will not wear evenly.Horses with overshot or undershot jaws will normally need their teeth checked frequently to ensure that the biting and grinding surfaces are meeting.
20Health Management Infections Feed that becomes trapped in a tooth can lead to bacterial growth, resulting in infection.Other causes of infection are fractured jaw and inflammation of the periodontal ligament (ligament that holds the tooth to the bone)An infected tooth usually leads to more of the obvious signs of dental disease …Swollen face or jawA draining abscessTrouble eating, etc.
21Health Management Sanitation A sound sanitation program is of paramount importance to fly control.The basic aim of a sanitation program is to reduce or eliminate fly larval development sites.Manure management is essential.Timely spreading of manure promotes drying and prevents larvae from developing.
22Health Management Sanitation Wet areas where manure, mud, and plant debris accumulate also form ideal breeding habitats.Modifications to the drainage around corrals to reduce excess moisture can eliminate fly production sites and make chemical control efforts much more successful.